reported median illness duration 20 years for the bipolar group
, but findings are inconsistent with regard to MDD group.
Therefore, we included manic, depressive, and mixed episode as a one bipolar group
and a paranoid and undifferentiated schizophrenia as a one schizophrenia group to the main statistical analyses.
In our study, there is significant drop of haemoglobin in monopolar group as compared to bipolar group
, which is statistically significant as shown in Table 7a.
Adverse reactions occurring in at least 5% of the study population and at a rate of twice that in the placebo groups were extrapyramidal symptoms, akathisia, dyspepsia, vomiting, somnolence, and restlessness in the bipolar group
. In the group with schizophrenia, the most commonly reported adverse events were extrapyramidal symptoms and akathisia.
There was a significantly higher proportion of females in the unipolar group compared with the bipolar group
(p = 0.01, [phi] = 0.25).
We found 8 patients in the bipolar group
and 9 patients in BIVAP group with preoperative urinary retention.
With the aim of determining clinically significant impairment in executive functions, scores of the bipolar group
were transformed into standard scores according to the mean and SD obtained in the control group, following a procedure described previously (Tohen et al., 2000).
Notably, BPRS, SANS scores, and defined daily dose (DDD) of antipsychotics were greater in the schizophrenia group compared to the bipolar group
However, this difference did not affect the results: despite the age difference, control and bipolar group
mean ages were both within middle adulthood.
The bipolar group
had a mean duration of illness of 3.70 [+ or -] 1.23 yr, while the mean duration of illness in the schizophrenia group was 3.43 [+ or -] 1.52 yr.
The bipolar group
demonstrated increases in both subcortical (ventral, striatal, thalamic, and hippocampal) and ventral prefrontal cortical responses, particularly to expressions of mild and intense fear, mild happiness, and mild sadness; activity was diminished in the dorsal prefrontal cortical area to the majority of facial expressions (Biol.
Sacred Heart Medical Center and White Bird have provided meeting rooms for these groups, including the Depressive and Manic Depressive Association and the Eugene Bipolar Group