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bipolar transistor[bī′pō·lər tranz′is·tər]
A transistor that uses both positive and negative charge carriers.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
A transistor made from a sandwich of n- and p-type semiconductor material: either npn or pnp. The middle section is known as the "base" and the other two as the "collector" and "emitter". When used as an amplifying element, the base to emitter junction is in a "forward-biased" (conducting) condition, and the base to collector junction is "reverse-biased" or non-conducting. Small changes in the base to emitter current (the input signal) cause either holes (for pnp devices) or free electrons (for npn) to enter the base from the emitter. The attracting voltage of the collector causes the majority of these charges to cross into and be collected by the collector, resulting in amplification.
Contrast field effect transistor.
Contrast field effect transistor.
This article is provided by FOLDOC - Free Online Dictionary of Computing (foldoc.org)
bipolar transistorAlso called a "bipolar junction transistor" (BJT), it is one of two major transistor categories; the other is "field effect transistor" (FET). Although the first transistors and first silicon chips used bipolar transistors, most chips today are field effect transistors wired as CMOS logic, which consume less power (see FET and MOSFET).
Bipolar transistors are available as individually packaged discrete components as well as by the hundreds of thousands on a single chip.
High Power, High Frequency
Although the overall market for bipolar transistors has decreased, they are still used for high power applications and high radio frequency (RF) applications that reach into the gigahertz range. For example, from 1997 to 2002, worldwide sales of bipolar chips dropped from USD $1.5 billion to $226 million, the latter out of a total semiconductor market of $136 billion. See transistor, IGBT and BiCMOS.
|The First Transistor Was Bipolar|
|In 1954, Texas Instruments pioneered the bipolar transistor. Although BJTs are fabricated in microscopic proportions on chips, individual discrete BJTs similar to this one are still in common use. (Image courtesy of Texas Instruments, Inc.)|
|NPN Bipolar Transistor|
|BJTs are either a sandwich of p-type silicon surrounded by n-type regions or n-type surrounded by p-type. To turn an NPN BJT on (example above), a negative potential is applied to the emitter terminal and a positive potential to the collector. When a positive voltage is applied to the base, it allows electrons to flow from the emitter to collector. For the PNP BJT, the polarities are reversed. The "bipolar" name comes from using both mobile carriers (electrons and holes).|
|Bipolars Use More Power|
|BJTs require continuous voltage at the base to keep the transistor closed (on) and current flowing from emitter to collector. In the field effect transistors (FETs) used in CMOS chips, the transistor is closed (turned on) by charging the gate, and current is only used during the gate charging period (see FET and MOSFET).|
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