bipolar

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Related to bipolarity: unipolarity

bipolar

1. having two poles
2. relating to or found at the North and South Poles
3. (of a transistor) utilizing both majority and minority charge carriers
4. Psychiatry suffering from bipolar manic-depressive disorder

bipolar

[bī′pō·lər]
(science and technology)
Having two poles.
Capable of assuming positive or negative values, such as an electric charge, or pertaining to a quantity with this property, such as a bipolar transistor.

bipolar

(electronics)

bipolar

(communications)
In digital transmission, an electrical line signalling method where the mark value alternates between positive and negative polarities.

See also AMI.

bipolar transistor

Also called a "bipolar junction transistor" (BJT), it is one of two major transistor categories; the other is "field effect transistor" (FET). Although the first transistors and first silicon chips used bipolar transistors, most chips today are field effect transistors wired as CMOS logic, which consume less power (see FET and MOSFET).

Bipolar transistors are available as individually packaged discrete components as well as by the hundreds of thousands on a single chip.

High Power, High Frequency
Although the overall market for bipolar transistors has decreased, they are still used for high power applications and high radio frequency (RF) applications that reach into the gigahertz range. For example, from 1997 to 2002, worldwide sales of bipolar chips dropped from USD $1.5 billion to $226 million, the latter out of a total semiconductor market of $136 billion. See transistor, IGBT and BiCMOS.


The First Transistor Was Bipolar
In 1954, Texas Instruments pioneered the bipolar transistor. Although BJTs are fabricated in microscopic proportions on chips, individual discrete BJTs similar to this one are still in common use. (Image courtesy of Texas Instruments, Inc.)







NPN Bipolar Transistor
BJTs are either a sandwich of p-type silicon surrounded by n-type regions or n-type surrounded by p-type. To turn an NPN BJT on (example above), a negative potential is applied to the emitter terminal and a positive potential to the collector. When a positive voltage is applied to the base, it allows electrons to flow from the emitter to collector. For the PNP BJT, the polarities are reversed. The "bipolar" name comes from using both mobile carriers (electrons and holes).







Bipolars Use More Power
BJTs require continuous voltage at the base to keep the transistor closed (on) and current flowing from emitter to collector. In the field effect transistors (FETs) used in CMOS chips, the transistor is closed (turned on) by charging the gate, and current is only used during the gate charging period (see FET and MOSFET).
































bipolar transmission

The technique used in T1 transmission, which alternates the 1 bits between positive and negative (+3v, -3v) in order to maintain an average of 0 volts.
References in periodicals archive ?
All this only exposes the vulnerabilities of bipolarity in the extant situation today.
Perhaps if Truman had not been president and Stalin had made major gains in Europe and the Middle East, the Soviet empire would have been stronger, and bipolarity might have persisted longer.
Although no information on specific aggressive behaviors was included in the vignettes, 75% (n = 78) of the medical students believed that the people described would eventually behave aggressively; while 10.6% (n= 11) considered that only the person in the schizophrenia vignette would behave aggressively, and 8.7% (n = 9) thought that only the person in the bipolarity vignette would do so, with no significant differences between the two ([chi square] = .08, p = .82).
Psychopathological characteristics of bipolar and unipolar depression - potential indicators of bipolarity. Psychiatr Danub.
In fact, under the present circumstances, this bipolarity is not a bad idea because it protects the state from the threat of communal politics.
However, this clinical case is more complex with clinical peculiarities that classification systems do not highlight, such as, the mixture of psychotic, anxious and psychomotor symptoms, the intraphasic bipolarity and the cyclic course with rapid and full recovery.
The idea that some kind of six-sided deterrence would work in this roiling cauldron of instability the way it did in the frozen bipolarity of the Cold War is simply ridiculous.
NAM came as a breath of fresh air to Third World nations struggling to escape the magnetic bipolarity of the Cold War era.
He acknowledged the "bipolarity" of working with the IMF, since it requires an additional decision making process involving almost all the nations of the world.
There's a hint of play-acting to Robertson's sociopathic swagger at the beginning, but the actor sheds that self-awareness as the extent of the character's bipolarity is revealed.
"We wish to rise above this doomed political bipolarity. In the center of our idea will be the citizen," he said.
The Everton boss, who is part of a crusade to work with sufferers of conditions such as depression and bipolarity, said: "It's so important we do more to help."