birth

(redirected from birth cohort)
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Legal.
Related to birth cohort: Cohort study

birth

or

labor,

delivery of the fetus by the viviparous mammal. Birth is also known as parturition. Human birth normally occurs about 280 days after onset of the last menstrual period before conception.

The Stages of Labor

Onset of labor, the first stage, is heralded by contractions of the uterus felt as cramplike pains in the abdomen or lower back that recur at intervals of 10 to 30 minutes and last about 40 seconds; they increase in frequency until they occur at about 2-minute intervals. With each contraction the cervix, or neck of the uterus, dilates until it becomes wide enough, about 4 in. (10 cm), to permit emergence of the baby.

In the second stage of labor the baby passes through the birth canal, most commonly head first, and is born. The effectiveness of uterine contractions in this stage is enhanced by the bearing-down abdominal contractions of the mother.

The third stage of labor, which occurs about 15 to 30 minutes after the child is born, is characterized by the separation of the placenta from the uterine wall and its expulsion. The total time of labor averages 13 to 14 hours in women pregnant for the first time and 8 to 9 hours in women who have previously borne children.

Methods of Analgesia

The pain of childbirth can be relieved with a variety of analgesic and sedative drugs, including morphine, barbiturates, and chloroform. However, many drugs that relieve pain also slow the uterine contractions or dangerously depress the baby's respiratory system. Spinal anesthetics, injected directly into the spinal cord, while not dangerous to the child, are difficult to administer accurately and are therefore potentially dangerous to the mother. Hypnosis has also been used experimentally.

Natural Childbirth

In recent years so-called natural childbirth has come into wide use; the advantages are that the child is born undrugged and the mother can be conscious at the moment of birth. Natural childbirth emphasizes the ability of many women to give birth with a minimal amount of pain-killing drugs or none at all. The Dick-Read method, formulated by the British obstetrician of that name, emphasizes maternal understanding of the birth process as an aid to relaxation, and exercises to strengthen muscles and encourage proper breathing. The Lamaze method, or psychoprophylaxis, is of Soviet Russian origin; it uses breathing exercises as a conditioned response to uterine contractions. The Leboyer method, developed by a French obstetrician, is an approach that seeks to minimize any trauma for the newborn through the use of a quiet room with dimmed light, immediate contact with the mother, and the like, and can be combined with other methods that focus on the mother and labor.

Complications of Childbirth

Birth often cannot proceed normally because of a defect of the cervix or weak uterine contractions; breech births, in which the feet or buttocks emerge first, and transverse births, in which the child is positioned across the uterus, usually require obstetrical intervention, such as forceps delivery, manually turning the baby, or performing a cesarean sectioncesarean section
, delivery of an infant by surgical removal from the uterus through an abdominal incision. The operation is of ancient origin: indeed, the name derives from the legend that Julius Caesar was born in this fashion. Until advancements in the late 19th cent.
..... Click the link for more information.
. About 10% of pregnancies terminate in deliveries that are too early, producing (after at least 200 days of gestation) premature infants requiring special care. Birth of a fetus prior to about 200 days of gestation is termed a miscarriage; birth within the first three months, an abortion. Stillbirth is the delivery of a dead child.

Complications of childbirth affecting the newborn include infant blindness attributable to gonorrhea infection, now largely eliminated by routine administration of silver nitrate to the eyes; retrolental fibroplasia, a type of blindness common for some years in premature infants that was found to result from administration of high concentrations of oxygen and is now largely avoided; and erythroblastosis fetaliserythroblastosis fetalis
, hemolytic disease of a newborn infant caused by blood group incompatibility between mother and child. Although the Rh factor is responsible for the most severe cases of erythroblastosis fetalis, the disease may be produced by any of the other blood
..... Click the link for more information.
, or Rh disease, which can often be prevented. Puerperal fever, an infection of the mother's genital tract once common following labor and delivery, has now also been largely eliminated by preventive hygiene, especially in labor, and by antibiotic therapy.

See pregnancypregnancy,
period of time between fertilization of the ovum (conception) and birth, during which mammals carry their developing young in the uterus (see embryo). The average duration of pregnancy in humans is about 280 days, equal to 9 calendar months.
..... Click the link for more information.
; obstetricsobstetrics
, branch of medicine concerned with the treatment of women during pregnancy, labor, childbirth (see birth), and the time after childbirth. Obstetricians work to ensure that pregnancy culminates in the delivery of a healthy baby, without impairing the health of the
..... Click the link for more information.
.

Bibliography

See D. Caton, What a Blessing She Had Chloroform (1999).

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/

What does it mean when you dream about birth?

Dreams of oneself or others giving birth most obviously relate to actual physical birth. Pregnant women and the husbands of pregnant women often dream about strange or difficult births (e.g., giving birth to puppies). This merely reflects anxiety about the birth process and should not be taken as indicating a difficult birth or a deformed child. Birth can also symbolize the beginning of a new idea or project. It also often represents the beginning of a new stage of life, in which one feels “reborn” in some sense.

The Dream Encyclopedia, Second Edition © 2009 Visible Ink Press®. All rights reserved.

birth

[bərth]
(biology)
The emergence of a new individual from the body of its parent.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Birth

(dreams)
Women who are pregnant and men who are going to be fathers commonly have dreams about giving birth. It is not an omen of anything to come, but simply the mind trying to cope with a significant anxiety-provoking event. If you or your mate is not pregnant, this dream could symbolize new beginnings (i. e., giving birth to new ideas, new ways of living, or a new stage in life). Superstition-based dream interpretations say that giving birth in a dream is a sign of good luck, while multiple births are omens of forthcoming material wealth.
Bedside Dream Dictionary by Silvana Amar Copyright © 2007 by Skyhorse Publishing, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
According to a statement issued by the ministry, Dr Mirza said the birth cohort research would be an asset for next generations and there would be positive impact on the healthcare system.
The United States has participated in every wave of the test, though results are not available for reading for the 1991 birth cohort. We use national PISA data, available every three years from 2000 to 2015.
Following this line of thought, the objective of this study was to analyze the effect of the age-period and the birth cohort (APC) on the mortality rates for acute myocardial infarction in Brazil and the geographical regions based on sex, during the period from 1980 to 2009.
Dreassi, "The epidemic of lung cancer in Tuscany (Italy): A joint analysis of male and female mortality by birth cohort," Spatial and Spatio-Temporal Epidemiology, vol.
At midgestation, back in the mid-1960s, 13.9% of the mothers of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort acknowledged feeling "depressed" or "very depressed," rates consistent with those reported in other studies using standardized depression assessment instruments.
This cohort, referred to as the 1980s birth cohort, includes 13 waves from 1999 to 2011.
This worked to 1) identify inmates in this birth cohort who have not been tested by WDOC and are in the recommended birth cohort for HCV testing, and 2) deliver a community standard of care, including follow-up testing and evaluation for HCV treatment, among inmates.
pylori prevalence was found to be 31.9%, with the highest prevalence in the 1950-1959 birth cohort. It was lower in the subsequent birth cohorts (trends, p<0.001).
Birth cohort studies are ideally suited to improve causal inference in this field [3].
The data from the Congressional Budget Office show a marked decline in scores on the eighth-grade Iowa Test of Basic Skills beginning with the 1953 birth cohort and ending with the 1963 cohort.
The second report examines the impact of an Indian Health Service (IHS) program to promote implementation of the CDC recommendation for one-time HCV testing for persons in the 1945-1965 birth cohort. As a result, during 2012-2015, HCV testing increased fourfold among those in the birth cohort across IHS clinics in 34 states.