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1. Psychol a powerful shock that may have long-lasting effects
2. Pathol any bodily injury or wound



an externally caused injury to the human or animal organism. Depending on its cause, a trauma may be classified as mechanical, chemical, or thermal (as in burns or frostbite), as a barotrauma (caused by abrupt changes in atmospheric pressure), as an electrotrauma, or as a combination of types of traumas—for example, a mechanical trauma combined with a burn. Depending on the duration of the traumatic event, a trauma may be either acute or chronic. Traumas may also be classified according to the circumstances in which they occur—for example, nonoccupational injuries, industrial accidents, or injuries resulting from athletic activity or military combat.

A mechanical trauma may be an open wound, or it may be a closed injury, with the skin remaining intact; it may be uncomplicated, or it may develop such complications as suppuration, osteomyelitis, sepsis, or traumatic toxicosis; it may be isolated (that is, limited to one organ or part of an extremity) or extensive (with injury to several organs or parts); or it may involve a combination of simultaneous injuries to the internal organs and the muscu-loskeletal system. Specific types of traumas are contusions, sprains, dislocations, fractures, compression of tissues and internal organs, concussions, and ruptures. They may be accompanied by hemorrhage, edema, inflammation, or necrosis (gangrene) of the tissues. Severe and extensive traumas are accompanied by shock and may be fatal. A special type is psychic trauma—a term denoting an emotional shock, and particularly one due to traumatic verbal activity. Psychic traumas may lead to morbid reactions in the psychic and autonomic systems, such as depression and neurosis.

Timely first aid and treatment may prevent severe posttraumatic complications. The various types of traumas are treated by appropriate medical specialists.


See references under and .



An injury caused by a mechanical or physical agent.
A severe psychic injury.
References in periodicals archive ?
The fact that these skills are almost totally absent in the CHCs (Table 1) speaks for itself and must contribute to the high mortality rate due to intrapartum asphyxia and birth trauma.
The study particularly considered birth trauma injuries representing a concern for orthopaedic surgeons, such as fractures and peripheral nerve lesions, especially those affecting the upper limb: fractures to the clavicle and humerus, brachial plexus injury, forearm and elbow fractures and dislocations.
Although several published studies have addressed birth trauma in adults, minimal research describes the birth trauma of adolescents.
The labor was difficult and prolonged, baby was macrocosmic and had brachial plexus injury associated with birth trauma.
Moreover, 4 (50%) of the 8 patients with tardive CD had additional movement disorders besides CD (1 had blepharospasm, 2 had hand/arm dystonia, and 1 had hand tremor), and 2 patients with birth trauma had additional hand/arm and truncal dystonia.
Most of the fractures casued by birth trauma are greenstick fractures (there is no dislocation).
The variables of neonatal morbidity i-e birth asphyxia, respiratory distress syndrome, infection were all increased in second twin than first except neonatal seizures and birth trauma which were equal in both groups (Table 2).
Numerous researchers have indicated that the prevalence of birth trauma after childbirth ranges between i.
Maureen Treadwell a spokesperson for Birth Trauma Association says: 'Women are also giving birth later in life to bigger babies and women are themselves getting heavier.
Because a lot of the women have been malnourished, there is a lot of birth trauma," said Rachael, who lives with her dad Colin and brother Nathan, 17.
Clinically it mimicked closely with birth trauma, giant congenital melanocytic nevus, congenital developmental anomaly, incontinentia pigmenti and sclerema neonatorum.