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1. Psychol a powerful shock that may have long-lasting effects
2. Pathol any bodily injury or wound
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



an externally caused injury to the human or animal organism. Depending on its cause, a trauma may be classified as mechanical, chemical, or thermal (as in burns or frostbite), as a barotrauma (caused by abrupt changes in atmospheric pressure), as an electrotrauma, or as a combination of types of traumas—for example, a mechanical trauma combined with a burn. Depending on the duration of the traumatic event, a trauma may be either acute or chronic. Traumas may also be classified according to the circumstances in which they occur—for example, nonoccupational injuries, industrial accidents, or injuries resulting from athletic activity or military combat.

A mechanical trauma may be an open wound, or it may be a closed injury, with the skin remaining intact; it may be uncomplicated, or it may develop such complications as suppuration, osteomyelitis, sepsis, or traumatic toxicosis; it may be isolated (that is, limited to one organ or part of an extremity) or extensive (with injury to several organs or parts); or it may involve a combination of simultaneous injuries to the internal organs and the muscu-loskeletal system. Specific types of traumas are contusions, sprains, dislocations, fractures, compression of tissues and internal organs, concussions, and ruptures. They may be accompanied by hemorrhage, edema, inflammation, or necrosis (gangrene) of the tissues. Severe and extensive traumas are accompanied by shock and may be fatal. A special type is psychic trauma—a term denoting an emotional shock, and particularly one due to traumatic verbal activity. Psychic traumas may lead to morbid reactions in the psychic and autonomic systems, such as depression and neurosis.

Timely first aid and treatment may prevent severe posttraumatic complications. The various types of traumas are treated by appropriate medical specialists.


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The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


An injury caused by a mechanical or physical agent.
A severe psychic injury.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
"Many people find online support extremely helpful - through the Birth Trauma Association Facebook page, or the Make Birth Better Instagram account."
When talking about birth trauma, most people may think of physical injury to newborn babies or the mental/physical damage to new mothers from their childbirth experiences.
There were no findings in other parts of the body related to birth trauma. In conclusion, we aimed to emphasize the fact that facial edema due to soft tissue trauma seen in newborns born with face presentation may be misinterpreted as a sign of a syndrome.
The fact that these skills are almost totally absent in the CHCs (Table 1) speaks for itself and must contribute to the high mortality rate due to intrapartum asphyxia and birth trauma. Patients with persistent occipitoposterior or other malpresentations where the head is not yet fully descended will be better off with a trial of AVD in a hospital where CD can be performed, rather than a failed rotational ventouse at the clinic and then transport to a hospital.
It has been demonstrated that the clinical characteristics of the patients were different among groups in terms of age, presence of maternal immune disorders (especially chronic inflammatory disease such as Crohn's disease), presence of birth trauma, and previous failed fistula operations (p = 0.016, < 0.001, < 0.001, and 0.026, resp.).
Up to the 2000s, many reports were published describing the incidence, frequency and treatment of birth trauma injuries.
The labor was difficult and prolonged, baby was macrocosmic and had brachial plexus injury associated with birth trauma. Parents did not have a history of consanguineous marriage, and family history was unremarkable for known diseases.
"Birth trauma is an event occurring during the labor and delivery process that involves actual or threatened serious injury or death to mother or infant" (Beck, 2004b, p.
Eight (61.5%) patients with secondary CD had a history of long-term neuroleptics use, 2 (15.4%) had a history of Parkinson's disease, 2 (15.4%) had a history of birth trauma, and 1 (7.7%) had a history of head trauma.
It is differentiated from acute neaonatal fractures with absence of birth trauma and absence of early excessive callus (1).
It found that 5% of babies born in private hospitals suffered birth trauma such as damaged scalps, jaundice or broken bones, and were readmitted to hospital within 28 days.
The perinatal outcome measures were 1 and 5 minute Apgar scores less than 7 , admission to nursery , early neonatal mortality ( neonatal death within 7days of delivery), neonatal morbidity ( birth asphyxia, birth trauma, respiratory distress syndrome, infection) and were recorded on a semi structured performa.