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large hoofed mammal, genus Bison, of the cattlecattle,
name for the ruminant mammals of the genus Bos, and particularly those of the domesticated species, Bos taurus and B. indica. The term oxen, broadly used, refers also to closely related animals, such as the buffalo and the bison.
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 family. Bison have short horns and humped, heavily mantled shoulders that slope downward to the hindquarters. The European bison, or wisentwisent
, name for the European bison, Bison bonasus. It is a close relative of the American bison, B. bison. Longer legged and less heavily built than its American cousin, the wisent may reach a height of 54 to 60 in.
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, Bison bonasus, has a less luxuriant mane and beard than the American species, B. bison.

The American bison is commonly called buffalo, but true buffalobuffalo,
name commonly applied to the American bison but correctly restricted to certain related African and Asian mammals of the cattle family. The water buffalo, or Indian buffalo, Bubalus bubalis, is found in S Asia.
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 are African and Asian animals of the same family. B. bison is characterized by a huge, low-slung head and massive hump; its legs are shorter than those of the wisent. Males may reach a shoulder height of over 5 ft (1.5 m), a body length of 9 ft (2.7 m), and a weight of 2,500 lb (1,130 kg). The winter coat of the American bison is dark brown and shaggy; it is shed in spring and replaced by a coat of short, light-brown fur. Bison graze on prairie grasses, migrating south in search of food in the winter.

They formerly were found over much of North America, especially on the Great Plains, and were hunted by Native Americans for their flesh and hides. During the 19th cent. they were subjected to a wholesale slaughter that resulted in their near extinction. They were killed for their tongues, regarded as a delicacy, and shot for sport from trains. Estimates of the number of bison in North America, at their peak, range from 24 million to 60 million. By the middle of the 19th cent. the bison was extinct E of the Mississippi, and by 1900 there remained only two wild herds in North America, one of plains bison in Yellowstone Park, and one of the larger variety, called wood bison, in Canada. Protective laws were passed beginning at the end of the last century, and the bison population has since risen from a few hundred to many thousands, although most bison not on federal lands have been hybridized to some degree with domestic cattle. The wood bison may have vanished as a distinct race through hybridization with the plains bison. The American bison was made the national of the United States by an act of Congress in 2016.

Bison are classified in the phylum ChordataChordata
, phylum of animals having a notochord, or dorsal stiffening rod, as the chief internal skeletal support at some stage of their development. Most chordates are vertebrates (animals with backbones), but the phylum also includes some small marine invertebrate animals.
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, subphylum Vertebrata, class Mammalia, order Artiodactyla, family Bovidae.


See T. McHugh and V. Hobson, The Time of the Buffalo (1972); J. N. Mcdonald, North American Bison (1981); V. Geist, Buffalo Nation (1996).


(vertebrate zoology)
The common name for two species of the family Bovidae in the order Artiodactyla; the wisent or European bison (Bison bonasus), and the American species (Bison bison).


1. a member of the cattle tribe, Bison bison, formerly widely distributed over the prairies of W North America but now confined to reserves and parks, with a massive head, shaggy forequarters, and a humped back
2. a closely related and similar animal, Bison bonasus, formerly widespread in Europe


GNU's replacement for the yacc parser generator. Bison runs under Unix and on Atari computers. It was written by Robert Corbett.

Latest version: 1.28, as of 2000-05-22.

As of version 1.24, Bison will no longer apply the GNU General Public License to your code. You can use the output files without restriction.

FTP or your nearest GNU archive site.

E-mail: <>.

Bison++ is a version which produces C++ output.


The Free Software Foundation's version of yacc.
References in periodicals archive ?
On the first day of the camp, the participants were provided with extensive information on the lifestyle, reintroduction area and habitat of bisons.
Environment Minister Lea Wermelin invites everyone to join as she inaugurates the Bison Trail on Sunday.
The Bisons, a non-profit organization, have been teaching tackle football to Brantford-area youths since 1964.
A 19-foot steel bison towers over Pierre Belanger, a symbol of the more than 300 buffalo that roam his 480-acre farmland in Earlton.
COVENTRY BLAZE continued their winning streak with a fairly comfortable win over Bastingstoke Bison at the Skydome last ight.
The bisons were brought to Azerbaijan under "Reintroduction of bisons in Azerbaijan" project jointly implemented by IDEA Public Union, the Ministry of Ecology and Natural Resources and World Wildlife Fund (WWF) Azerbaijan office.
Following the Bisons championship win earlier this year, Hoeven and the President discussed the teams impressive record over the past eight years, and honoring the team at the White House.
We observed a group of 18 wood bison, of mixed sex and age classes, swimming across a 1.7 km wide section of the Liard River on 16 July 2002.
Another environmental summer camp entitled "Return of bison to our nature!" was held on July 4-6 within the "Reintroduction of Bison in Azerbaijan" program, IDEA Public Association informed on July 7.
Senator Heidi Heitkamp today announced nearly $300,000 in federal funding to Sitting Bull College for research aimed to prevent the collapse of tribal bison herds.
Otaru Fine Food Sdn Bhd, wholly owned subsidiary of Bison Consolidated Bhd is to acquire a piece of land in Rawang, Selangor, in a deal worth RM6.75 million for construction of its food processing centre.
Coase (1974) showed that a lighthouse is not the best example of a public good, and Steven Cheung (1973) explained that bees, in most cases, do not provide an unpriced externality, we also need to rethink how we present the overexploitation of open-access resources and its applicability to bison. In particular, economists should be careful not to ignore an important element in our tool kit, opportunity costs, when we discuss overexploitation.