Kitamura (2006a) pointed out that the relationship between bitterlings and mussels can be investigated further by studying fluctuations in ovipositor length and mechanisms for laying eggs using the ovipositor.
1997: Host specialization in an unusual symbiosis: European bitterlings spawning in freshwater mussels.
Reproductive characteristics and host use of two populations of the Korean bitterling, Acheilognathus signifer, which uses mussels as a host, were investigated from April to July in 2011 and 2013.
Acheilognathus signifer is an endemic Korean bitterling designated as an endangered species in the Red Data Book of endangered fishes of Korea (NIBR 2011).
signifer in two bitterling populations that use different host mussels: L.
2005) suggested that the width and length of the interlamellar spaces plays very important role for the bitterling embryo survival.
For bigger mussels, bitterling embryos are more likely to be deposited nearer the exhalant siphon in the gill cavity and may face a greater risk of ejection (Kitamura 2006a).
2014: Spawning ecology and conservation of the Korean bitterling, Acheilognathus signifer (Cyprinidae).
2005: Factors affecting seasonal mortality of rosy bitterling (Rhodeus ocellatus kurumeus) embryos on the gills of their host mussel.
2006a: Seasonal change in the spatial utilization of host mussels in relation to ovipositor length by female rosy bitterling Rhodeus ocellatus kurumeus.