This article has become a classic in blackbody radiation
. de Vos  examined the quality of cavities constructed from materials with varying emissivity by noting the change upon incident radiation.
By embedding QD's, additional recombination current densities, [J.sub.r,ci] over conduction-band/intermediate band and [J.sub.r,iv] over intermediate-band/valence-band, which can be expressed by modifying the blackbody radiation
model in  with the fractional volume, [[gamma].sub.f], as
Finally, we can obtain the corresponding temperature of blackbody radiation
, which is the brightness temperature BT (K).
The testing and characterization of these devices require a vacuum environment and typically involve exposing the device to a blackbody radiation
source at a known temperature.
Electrical output of these structures, within a superheated vacuum, yielded a conversion efficiency of 34%, three times the predicted values governed by ideal blackbody radiation
? Of course that has nothing to do with black-colored objects.
The energy captured by the planet is assumed to warm the planet until the energy radiated through blackbody radiation
is equal to that received from its sun.
The P310 precision blackbody radiation
calibration source has a 76-mm aperture opening and employs a highly conductive copper cone-shaped cavity that, according to the manufacturer, achieves an emissivity value of 0.99 or better over its entire temperature range (+10[degrees]C to +300[degrees]C accurate to [+ or -]0.25 percent of reading [+ or -] 1[degrees]C).
The blackbody radiation
versus wavelength is a function of the temperature of the emitter.
However, the study of blackbody radiation
at thermal equilibrium led to experimental results that could not be explained by classical electromagnetic theory.
The seven activities focus on star mass, modeling a black hole, classifying stars, blackbody radiation
, Wein's Law, and crossing the event horizon.
Microwave radiometers, which measure natural blackbody radiation
, can measure ocean salinity, and the age and thickness of sea ice.