bladder, urinary

bladder, urinary,

muscular sac located in the pelvis that stores urineurine,
clear, amber-colored fluid formed by the kidneys that carries metabolic wastes out of the body (see urinary system). As the blood circulates it collects excretory products from the tissues and these substances are separated from the blood by the kidneys and eliminated
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 and contracts to expel it from the body. Urine enters the bladder from the kidneys through the uretersureter
, thick-walled tube that conveys urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder. It is approximately 10 in. (25.4 cm) long, with the upper half located in the abdomen and the lower half in the pelvic region.
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 and is discharged from the body via the urethraurethra
, canal in most mammals that carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body; in the male it also serves as a genital duct. The urethra is about 1 1-2 in. long (3.8 cm) in women, terminating above the vaginal opening. In men the urethra is about 8 in.
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. The bladder of the adult human can hold over a pint (0.6 liters) of urine. When the level of urine reaches about half this amount, pressure of the accumulating fluid stimulates nervous impulses that relax the external sphincter, a muscle that forms a dense band around the urethra at the base of the bladder. This muscle can be controlled voluntarily in most mammals. The muscles in the wall of the bladder also contract, forcing urine out through the urethra. The bladder is subject to infection (commonly called cystitiscystitis
, common acute or chronic inflammation of the urinary bladder. The disease occurs primarily in young women and frequently results from bacterial invasion of the urethra from the adjacent rectum, most commonly with normally occurring intestinal bacteria such as E.
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) and the formation of stones. Its normal function may also be affected by nervous disorders or by external pressure, as from prostatic enlargement or pregnancy. See urinary systemurinary system,
group of organs of the body concerned with excretion of urine, that is, water and the waste products of metabolism. In humans, the kidneys are two small organs situated near the vertebral column at the small of the back, the left lying somewhat higher than the
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References in periodicals archive ?
In the study, older women with more than two chronic conditions were the most likely to be prescribed potentially inappropriate anticholinergics, and the drugs were typically prescribed to treat overactive bladder, urinary incontinence, or nerve pain.
(1.) Irwin DE, Kopp ZS, Agatep B, et al: Worldwide prevalence estimates of lower urinary tract symptoms, overactive bladder, urinary incontinence and bladder outlet obstruction.
Key Words: Obstructive, uropathy, pediatric, congenital anomalies, incontinence, kidney stones, renal genesis, overactive bladder, urinary urgency.
Terms included bladder spasms, spasms, urinary bladder, urinary, prevention and control, perioperative, postop, human, adult, and belladonna and opium.
In the office, Cystosure can similarly make the evaluation of conditions like overactive bladder, urinary incontinence, incomplete bladder emptying, and recurrent urinary tract infections much easier and less expensive, enabling more gynecologists to take the lead in diagnosis.
The prognosis with presence of liver, gall bladder, urinary bladder and intestine loops always remains grave where as it was favorable as revealed by uneventful recovery in present case.
Spinal cord injury (SCI) can cause severe lower urinary tract dysfunction and conditions such as overactive bladder, urinary retention and increased bladder thickness and fibrosis.
He explained that the device, which has a lifespan of between five-eight years, is implanted through a procedure known as the sacral nerve stimulation - a minimally invasive procedure to treat urge incontinence, overactive bladder, urinary retention or interstitial cystitis.
Differential diagnosis: incomplete duplication of the urinary bladder, urinary bladder diverticulum and cloacal malformation.
A search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and Cochrane Library databases (from 1985 to 2008) was undertaken using the MeSH terms: overactive bladder, urinary urgency, nocturia, urinary incontinence, nocturnal polyuria, reduced voided volumes, frequent night-time micturition or urination AND falls, accidents or accidentally falling.
They are: LFSN Support List (Lipomyelomeningocele Family Support Network), which can be contacted via E-mail at; and the Neuro-Incontincence Support List, which deals with damage to the bladder, neurogenic bladder, urinary sphincter problems, etc., and they can be contacted at the following E-mail address: