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Passage of a missile completely through an object.
(science and technology)
Any hole made by boring, punching, or piercing.



(1) In botany, an opening in the cell membrane of a vessel in vascular plants. Water passes freely through the perforations and into the vessels. The perforations may be on the lateral and transverse walls of the cells. If a perforation is single, it is called a simple perforation (in the vessels of oaks and herbs). Multiple perforations are arranged in parallel series (scalariform perforations), in an irregular network (reticulate perforations), or as a group of approximately circular holes (foraminate perforations). Ferns have scalariform perforations, ivies reticulate perforations, and ephedras foraminate perforations.

(2) In medicine, the penetration of the wall of a hollow or tubular organ, for example, the intestine.



in medicine, an opening or hole in the wall of a cavitary or tubular organ, as a result of which the cavity of the organ communicates with surrounding cavities or tissues.

Perforation may be caused by intrusion of a foreign body from the lumen of an organ (for example, perforation of the esophagus by a swallowed bone) or externally (a penetrating knife or bullet wound). It may also be caused by disruption of all layers of an organ by a pathological process, for example, perforation of an ulcer or tumor of the stomach or intestine or perforation of the vermiform appendix or the gallbladder with gangrenous appendicitis or cholecystitis.

When there is a perforation, the contents of a hollow organ, by penetrating surrounding tissue (periesophageal or perirectal) or the abdominal cavity, cause development of a rapidly progressing purulent inflammatory process called mediastinitis, paraproctitis, or peritonitis. Treatment consists in emergency surgery.

References in periodicals archive ?
Acute Gall bladder perforation with gallstones spillage in a cirrhotic patient.
Bladder perforation: a potential risk of early endovesical chemotherapy with mitomycin C.
"Every effort must be made to prevent gall bladder perforation. When it does occur all stones should be retrieved.
A diagnosis of shunt displacement due to bladder perforation was made that was confirmed on plain abdominal radiographs (fig-1).
Maximum patients were diagnosed as having appendicular perforation (35.1%), followed by gall bladder perforation. Out of small bowel perforations, maximum (13.8%) were found to be ileal perforations.
Although this endourological procedure is typically safe and well-tolerated, the surgeon should be vigilant during surgery to avoid complications such as bladder perforation. Internal herniation of the bowel through an unrecognized iatrogenic rent in the bladder wall is a rare but recognized complication.
We report a case of type 1 gall bladder perforation in a male patient with no previous complaints related to gallstones.
[7] Soichiro Ogawa, Tomonori Date, and Osamu Muraki, "Intraperitoneal Urinary Bladder Perforation Observed in a Patient with an Indwelling Urethral Catheter," Case Reports in Urology, vol.
Gonen, "Bladder perforation related to intrauterine device," Journal of the Chinese Medical Association, vol.
The obturator nerve passes close to the lateral wall of the bladder, and its stimulation may result in thigh adductor muscle contraction, which could be associated with undesirable complications such as bladder perforation, vascular injuries, incomplete cancer resection, and obturator muscle hematomas.