sphincter

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sphincter

Anatomy a ring of muscle surrounding the opening of a hollow organ or body and contracting to close it
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Sphincter

 

a ringlike muscle that constricts to close a natural orifice such as the oral or anal opening, or to narrow the passage from one part of a hollow tubular organ to another, for example, from the stomach and bile duct to the duodenum and from the bladder to the urethra. The sphincter is always in a tonic state. The orbicular muscle of the iris is a sphincter. Some sphincters consist of striated muscle and others of smooth muscle innervated by the autonomic nervous system.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

sphincter

[′sfiŋk·tər]
(anatomy)
A muscle that surrounds and functions to close an orifice.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
For instance, posterior urethral valve and non-neuropathic bladder sphincter dysfunction patients may be managed with double voiding.
In 1945 (6), Congress expressly included people with paraplegia among those eligible for an award of "O," defined for this purpose as "paralysis of both lower extremities together with loss of anal and bladder sphincter control." Then as now, it was explained that "O" was available for paraplegia "through combination of loss of use of both legs and helplessness."
PRESSURE caused by laughing, coughing, sneezing or exercising can sometimes cause urine leakage as the bladder sphincter gives way.
The bladder sphincter shuts and urination is impossible.
Stress incontinence is caused by a weak bladder sphincter muscle - the muscle that controls urine flow.
Spine films or magnetic resonance imaging are indicated only if there is an abnormal spine exam or motor or sensory exam of the lower extremities or anal sphincters as the nerves innervating the bladder sphincters enter the sacral cord in proximity to those.