training

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training

(1) Teaching the details of a subject. With regard to software, training provides instruction for each command and function in an application. Contrast with education.

(2) In communications, the process by which two modems determine the correct protocols and transmission speeds to use.

(3) In voice recognition systems, the recording of the user's voice in order to provide samples and patterns for recognizing that voice.

Training

 

in fruit growing and ornamental horticulture, imparting a certain shape to the crowns of trees. The crowns of fruit trees and shrubs are made light-permeable, sturdy, and compact to ensure high yields and convenience in managing, cultivation, and harvesting (by mechanized means). Crown shapes are classified as high-trunk (taller than 150 cm), average trunk (70–100 cm), low-trunk (50–60 cm), shrub (shorter than 40 cm), and trunkless (berry bushes and, sometimes, plum, cherry, and certain spreading forms). Depending on the arrangement of the branches, the crowns may be free-growing (improved-natural) or artificial.

Most common in fruit-growing is the free-growing crown, in the formation of which the natural growth of the tree or shrub is only slightly disrupted. Free-growing crowns include the whorled-layered crown whose principal skeletal branches are arranged in whorls of five in two or three layers, and the thinned-layered crown whose skeletal branches are arranged in layers of three, with solitary branches between them. Artificial crown shapes are used in topiary work and in ornamental horticulture. In beautifying city streets trees are usually trained to have a high trunk (up to 2 m) and a spherical crown. In parks trees are often trained in the form of geometric shapes, vases, and animals. Training is usually begun in plant nurseries and completed at the permanent planting site. The principal method of tree training is pruning.

REFERENCES

See references under PRUNING FRUIT AND BERRY PLANTS.

B. P. ANZIN

References in periodicals archive ?
Conservative and behavioural treatments should be considered: lifestyle changes (grade C), bladder training for fit patient (grade B) and prompted voiding for frail (grade A-B).
Patients are also being advised to control their weight as obesity is one of the risk factors for this condition and we also encourage them in bladder training where they are asked to resist the urge to void, especially having just urinated," she explained.
Timed voiding and bladder training also can help you control your bladder.
Bladder training involves working with a health care professional to plan specific times at which to urinate and then using relaxation techniques and distractions to stick to the schedule.
In this study, women with urinary incontinence who were given a brief description of pelvic floor exercise were compared with a group who were given more detailed instruction at five, seven and nine months after the birth, supplemented where necessary with bladder training at seven and nine months.
If there is no infection, bladder training can be effective.
However, bladder training together with pelvic muscle exercise with biofeedback (and combinations of these) had the greatest effect on reducing incontinent episodes than either therapy alone, regardless of urodynamic diagnosis.
A more medically sound, nondrug therapy is bladder training with timed voiding.
Bladder training and pelvic muscle exercises (see sidebar below) help improve bladder control.
Drug therapy is often coupled with behavioral technique and bladder training, which help individuals gain even greater bladder control.
Treatments include waiting, dietary modification, moisture alarms, medications, and bladder training.
The type of difficulty your child has with toilet training (bowel training, bladder training, or both) and the potential to achieve control depends on your child's special need and whether it is a physical or cognitive difficulty and the degree to which your child is affected.