training

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training

(1) Teaching the details of a subject. With regard to software, training provides instruction for each command and function in an application. Contrast with education.

(2) In communications, the process by which two modems determine the correct protocols and transmission speeds to use.

(3) In voice recognition systems, the recording of the user's voice in order to provide samples and patterns for recognizing that voice.

Training

 

in fruit growing and ornamental horticulture, imparting a certain shape to the crowns of trees. The crowns of fruit trees and shrubs are made light-permeable, sturdy, and compact to ensure high yields and convenience in managing, cultivation, and harvesting (by mechanized means). Crown shapes are classified as high-trunk (taller than 150 cm), average trunk (70–100 cm), low-trunk (50–60 cm), shrub (shorter than 40 cm), and trunkless (berry bushes and, sometimes, plum, cherry, and certain spreading forms). Depending on the arrangement of the branches, the crowns may be free-growing (improved-natural) or artificial.

Most common in fruit-growing is the free-growing crown, in the formation of which the natural growth of the tree or shrub is only slightly disrupted. Free-growing crowns include the whorled-layered crown whose principal skeletal branches are arranged in whorls of five in two or three layers, and the thinned-layered crown whose skeletal branches are arranged in layers of three, with solitary branches between them. Artificial crown shapes are used in topiary work and in ornamental horticulture. In beautifying city streets trees are usually trained to have a high trunk (up to 2 m) and a spherical crown. In parks trees are often trained in the form of geometric shapes, vases, and animals. Training is usually begun in plant nurseries and completed at the permanent planting site. The principal method of tree training is pruning.

REFERENCES

See references under PRUNING FRUIT AND BERRY PLANTS.

B. P. ANZIN

References in periodicals archive ?
Our intense educational bladder training intervention was conservative and assessed at six and 12 weeks post-operation.
A prospective trial of bladder training as treatment for detrusor instability.
The effect of bladder training, pelvic floor muscle training, or combination training on urodynamic parameters in women with urinary incontinence: Continence Program for Women Research Group.
Urge incontinence can be helped by bladder training exercises and medication.
Changes in quality of life following bladder training in older women with urinary incontinence.
Bladder training is used for urge incontinence, and may also be used for stress incontinence.
The results should end public and professional misconceptions: Bladder training in older women with urinary incontinence of detrusor instability (urge incontinence), urethral sphincter incompetence (stress incontinence), or both, works efficaciously in 44-100% of cases.
Learning bladder training techniques, which may help patients wait longer between bathroom visits
Behavioral therapies include bladder training, delaying urination, and increasing the urine volume for a single time.
These include patient education, diet and lifestyle changes, and bladder training for all patients.
For urge incontinence, your doctor may suggest bladder training, which involves "holding on" for progressively longer periods of time, the ultimate goal being to lengthen the time between trips to the bathroom.
In addition to PFMT with biofeedback, clinicians with expertise in behavioral treatments for UI and related lower urinary and pelvic symptoms add other interventions, including bladder training with urgency inhibition or suppression, and diet and fluid management to maximize outcomes (Greer, Smith, & Arya, 2012; Newman & Wein, 2013; Wyman et al, 2009).