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diet, parliamentary body
diet, parliamentary bodies in Japan, Poland, Hungary, Bohemia, the Scandinavian nations, and Germany have been called diets. In German history, the diet originated as a meeting of landholders and burghers, convoked by the ruler to discuss financial problems. The imperial diet or Reichstag of the Holy Roman Empire began as a loose assembly of ecclesiastic princes and imperial cities, meeting at irregular intervals. After 1489 three colleges representing electors, princes, and imperial cities arrived at decisions separately—even over war and peace—then combined them. The emperor could ratify the whole or parts. Among the most important diets were those of Worms (1495) and Cologne (1512); see Maximilian I, Holy Roman emperor. The most important diets of the Reformation were Worms (1521), Speyer (1529), and Augsburg (1530, 1547, 1555). The diet declined in importance and after the peace of Westphalia (1648) it became an assembly of independent princes, meeting after 1663 at Regensburg as a conference of ambassadors without legislative power. For the federal diet of 1815–66, which succeeded the imperial diet, see German Confederation. The term was revived for the legislature of the German Empire in 1871, and was used until the end of World War II; see Reichstag.
The Japanese diet was established as the national legislature in 1889. Until 1947, the upper house (Peers) was appointive, the lower (Representatives) elected. Its powers were negative: no bill could become law without its approval, except in an emergency; the government could function with last year's budget if the current one was not approved; legislation was initiated by the executive. After 1947, the upper house was made elective (Councillors). Suffrage became universal, and the lower house gained precedence over the selection of the prime minister, budgets, and treaties; it can override the upper house on bills with a two-thirds majority. Most legislation is initiated by the cabinet. Since 1947 the Japanese diet, once peripheral, is central to Japan's politics; see Japan, under Government and Politics.
diet, in nutrition
Cultural, Regional, and Practical Factors
Until the advent of refrigeration, the most important factor in a person's diet was availability; diets varied according to animal migrations and the growing seasons of fruits, nuts, and vegetables. Another factor in food selection can be religion. Muslims, for example, are forbidden to drink alcohol.
Diets vary throughout the world. North Africa, with many Muslims, and the Middle East have similar diets. A starchy food (see starch), such as rice, boiled and pounded yam mush, or cassava, is often accompanied by a spicy stew of fish or chicken with vegetables. Other popular dishes include curries, kebabs (marinated meat threaded on a stick and roasted), couscous (steamed wheat semolina), falafel (a spiced fritter), and yogurt. Many Asian diets are based on rice, which is often served with bite-size vegetables and meats accompanied by spicy seasoning. In Europe, bread is often the main starch, but Italy is noted for pasta, a nutritious noodle made from wheat and usually topped with a sauce, such as a small serving of cooked tomatoes garnished with cheese. In Scandinavia, fish in general, and herring in particular, are main staples of the diet.
Food has always been subject to cross-cultural influences, often as a result of colonization and migration of people. Thus, French influences can be seen throughout Asia, particularly in Japan and Indochina; Dutch influences in Indonesia and South Africa; and Indian influences throughout the Commonwealth of Nations. Certain foods, such as dumplings, are found in slightly different forms in all cultures. North American cuisine is an amalgam of Native American foods, such as corn-on-the-cob, and immigrant cuisines, including that of Africans.
Diet in the Twentieth and Twenty-first Centuries
See D. and P. Von Welanetz, The Von Welanetz Guide to Ethnic Ingredients (1982); J. Newman, Melting Pot: An Annotated Bibliography and Guide to Food and Nutrition Information for Ethnic Groups in America (1986); S. Quandt and C. Ritenbaugh, Training Manual in Nutritional Anthropology (1986); B. Griggs, The Food Factor: An Account of the Nutrition Revolution (1988).
a specially planned nutritional regimen with respect to quantity, chemical composition, physical properties, culinary processing, and intervals of food ingestion. The nutritional regimen of a healthy individual that meets the requirements of his occupation, sex, age, and so forth (a rational diet) is the subject of study of nutritional hygiene. Dietetics, the science of therapeutic nutrition, is concerned with the development and prescription of diets for sick individuals. The planning of a diet takes into account the functional, pathomorphological, metabolic, enzymic, and other disturbances in the human organism. A properly selected diet creates the most favorable background for the use of various treatments, reinforces the effects of these treatments, or exerts a therapeutic effect. The prophylactic significance of diet is that it deters acute diseases from becoming chronic ones.
REFERENCEPokrovskii, A. A. Besedy o pitanii. Moscow, 1968.
Diet for animals is the feeding regimen for a sick animal. Prescription of a diet takes into account the diagnosis and course of the disease, the state of the sick animal, and its age, sex, breed, and productivity. The feed rations of a sick animal must include high-quality, easily digestible feeds with a complete complement of the necessary nutrients. When there is a vitamin deficiency in the rations of herbivorous animals, they are given hay and meal of leguminous grasses, mixed silage, sprouted grain, infusion of coniferous needles, and nutritional yeasts. Carnivorous animals in the same situation are given milk, fresh meat, fish, liver, and eggs. When there is a deficiency or an incorrect proportion of macroelements and microelements, appropriate mineral supplements manufactured in the form of salt pellets or mixed feeds are introduced. Sometimes certain feeds are limited in the rations or are subjected to special processing (pulverization, steaming, fermentation).
REFERENCESDmitrochenko, A. P., and P. D. Pshenichnyi. Kormlenie se’skokhoziaistvennykh zhivotnykh. Leningrad, 1964.
Vnutrennie nezaraznye bolezni sel’skokhoziaistvennykh zhivotnykh, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1964.