Photographs of a northern saw-whet owl on the first day of presentation for a painful left eye (OS) with blepharospasm
. (A) OS appears discolored compared with the right eye (OD).
causes muscles around the eyes to contract involuntarily.
is characterized by stereotyped, bilateral and synchronous spasms of the orbicularis oculi muscles.
Other diseases that need to be considered in differential diagnosis are apraxia of eyelid opening which is characterized by difficulty in voluntary opening of eyelid without spasm in the orbicularis oculi muscle, reflex blepharospasm
and blepharitis (6,18).
The prevalence of blepharospasm
is 3-13/100,000, it is more common in women (female to male ratio, 3:1) and occurs predominantly in older age groups (55-65 years).
3), epiphorea, blepharospasm
, ocular discomfort and lacrimation of affected eyes since last 7-10 days.
Kulwin, "Long-term efficacy and safety of botulinum toxin A injections to treat blepharospasm
and hemifacial spasm," Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology, vol.
Lian, "Comparison of two different formulations of botulinum toxin a for the treatment of blepharospasm
and hemifacial spasm," Turkish Neurosurgery, vol.
(10) The most common symptoms in older patients is photophobia and associated blepharospasm
. (11) In addition, color vision, peripheral vision, and night vision may be reduced due to anterior and posterior segment complications.
Other manifestations reported in the literature include nausea, vomiting, keratoconjunctivitis, blurred vision, photophobia, blepharospasm
, and lacrimation.4 In lethal H2S exposure, sulfides act on the respiratory centers of the brain causing respiratory paralysis.
An ophthalmic examination revealed a severely dry eye, a corneal ulcer, and an epithelial defect in both eyes; she received 0.05% topical cyclosporine two times a day, a topical steroid four times a day, and artificial teardrops four times a day in both eyes (Figure 1).Photophobia, blepharospasm
, and thinning of the left corneal stroma were also observed.
Take, for example, one of the book's shorter case histories, about a patient O'Sullivan calls "Mary." A married mother of two daughters aged eleven and fourteen, Mary arrives at the clinic suffering from blepharospasm
, a condition in which muscular spasms sporadically force the eyes shut.