The particular role of the blocking layer
and effect of double-layered blocking oxide have been studied in .
First, this study reports the preparation and optimization of each DSSC component layer, mainly the Ti[O.sub.2.sup.b] blocking layer
, mesoporous Ti[O.sub.2.sup.m] layer, active electrode represented by the Sn[O.sub.2]:F/Ti[O.sub.2.sup.b]/Ti[O.sub.2.sup.m]/dye heterojunctions, and counterelectrode.
Traditionally, a dense n-type compact layer of Ti[O.sub.2] is deposited on FTO/ITO used as a hole blocking layer
, where a mesoporous layer of Ti[O.sub.2] is used.
Liu, "Performance improvement of ceria-based solid oxide fuel cells with yttria-stabilized zirconia as an electronic blocking layer
by pulsed laser deposition," International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, vol.
TiCl4 pre-treatment is used as a blocking layer
to minimize the recombination promises and for avoiding contact between the FTO and electrolyte .
In order to minimize the electron back transfer from Ti[O.sub.2] to the redox electrolyte, vertically aligned ZnO nanorods are often applied to DSSCs as the blocking layer
since they can form an energy barrier at the electrolyte/Ti[O.sub.2] interface in addition to providing large surface area for dye adsorption and direct pathway for efficient electron transport from the electrolyte to the photoanode [3, 4, 6, 7].
Although a chromium layer appeared to prevent the transport of materials at the beginning, the blocking layer
, which contained large amount of LiFe[O.sub.2], disintegrated afterwards and a spinel layer was formed in the matrix side for SS304.
Hence, the program/erase speed can be improved using a high-k blocking layer
. In this work, [Y.sub.2][O.sub.3] is chosen to be the blocking oxide in which the charge injection efficiency in the tunneling oxide can be increased; meanwhile, the blocking function can be maintained.
A transparent blocking layer
on the back side of screen prevents unintended lighting of environmental UV.
"Then, we carried out another anodization process in order to stabilize the interface between metal and oxide and also to study the reasons for and the effects of the formation of a blocking layer
during the anodization."
"Once that blocking layer
is there, there's no way for the heat from the deep mantle to escape to the surface," Davies said.