blood bank


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blood bank,

site or mobile unit for collecting, processing, typing, and storing whole bloodblood,
fluid pumped by the heart that circulates throughout the body via the arteries, veins, and capillaries (see circulatory system; heart). An adult male of average size normally has about 6 quarts (5.6 liters) of blood.
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, blood plasma and other blood constituents. Most hospitals maintain their own blood reserves, and the American Red Cross provides a nationwide collection and distribution service. The Red Cross collects about 50% of the blood for the nation's blood banks. The Food and Drug AdministrationFood and Drug Administration
(FDA), agency of the Public Health Service division of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. It is charged with protecting public health by ensuring that foods are safe and pure, cosmetics and other chemical substances harmless, and
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 licenses blood banks.

Whole blood may be preserved for up to 21 days without losing its usefulness in blood transfusionsblood transfusion,
transfer of blood from one person to another, or from one animal to another of the same species. Transfusions are performed to replace a substantial loss of blood and as supportive treatment in certain diseases and blood disorders.
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; an anticoagulant is added to prevent clotting. Blood plasma, the fluid portion of the blood, may be frozen and/or dried and stored indefinitely. Blood and donors are screened for hepatitishepatitis
, inflammation of the liver. There are many types of hepatitis. Causes include viruses, toxic chemicals, alcohol consumption, parasites and bacteria, and certain drugs.
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, AIDSAIDS
or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome,
fatal disease caused by a rapidly mutating retrovirus that attacks the immune system and leaves the victim vulnerable to infections, malignancies, and neurological disorders. It was first recognized as a disease in 1981.
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, malariamalaria,
infectious parasitic disease that can be either acute or chronic and is frequently recurrent. Malaria is common in Africa, Central and South America, the Mediterranean countries, Asia, and many of the Pacific islands.
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, and other infectious diseases. The potential risk of acquiring AIDS or hepatitis through transfusions has made it a common practice among patients anticipating surgery to "bank" their own blood before it is needed.

Many blood banks also have facilities for apheresisapheresis
, or hemapheresis
, any procedure in which blood is drawn from a donor or patient and a component (platelets, plasma, or white blood cells) is separated out, the remaining blood components being returned to the body.
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, bone marrow donations, and related procedures. Some centers save umbilical cord blood (blood that is especially rich in stem cellsstem cells,
unspecialized human or animal cells that can produce mature specialized body cells and at the same time replicate themselves. Embryonic stem cells are derived from a blastocyst (the blastula typical of placental mammals; see embryo), which is very young embryo that
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) for use in treatments; however, the cost of preparing and storing such blood is much higher than that of normal blood. Sometimes parents store their newborn's cord blood at a private cord blood bank in case the child has need of it, but the use of one own's cord blood is ineffective or undesirable in many diseases where such blood is used as a treatment.

Blood Bank

 

in the USSR, a medical establishment that supervises medical facilities in the processing and transfusion of blood. Blood banks establish donor networks, keep records on and perform medical examinations of donors, and process and store blood and blood preparations and substitutes (and sometimes bone marrow) and distribute them to hospitals and clinics. Together with organizations of the Union of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies of the USSR, blood banks conduct active educational and organizational work to attract people into becoming donors (for example, donor’s days are organized). Blood banks promote the use of new techniques of blood transfusion and the use of new blood preparations and substitutes in hospitals and clinics. They also train physicians and paramedics and supervise the blood-transfusion work performed in hospitals and clinics.

Blood banks are under the jurisdiction of corresponding public-health departments and supervised by institutes of blood transfusion on procedures and organizational matters.

blood bank

[′bləd ‚baŋk]
(engineering)
A place for storing whole blood or plasma under refrigeration.

blood bank

a place where whole blood, blood plasma, or other blood products are stored until required in transfusion
References in periodicals archive ?
Blood banks will no longer supply blood and its components to private facilities, if the facility is not based within the same emirate, according to a recent decision.
The conference aims to shed light on blood banks' services in the GCC, especially the Kingdom of Bahrain and disseminate awareness in GCC societies and medical cadres in this field to support the cooperation ties bonding GCC blood banks as well as honouring authorities supporting KHUH in its blood donations campaigns.
It has also fixed the exchange value for surplus plasma available at blood banks.
He said the Health Ministry has 152 blood banks, including 24 central banks used to carry out tests on samples from blood donors for sexual and other infectious and hereditary diseases.
Albert Byron Cord Blood Bank is the only company that guarantees cord blood availability when you need it.
The blood bank set up eight beds at the camp and an additional seven beds in two mobile blood-bank buses.
As a result of the conflict in the Gaza Strip, blood banks play a hugely important role in the area.
Given the size of the blood bank and the difficulties involved in accessing many staff members, the study adopted convenience sampling techniques based on participant availability.
Blood bank officials said it is always difficult to collect blood around the holidays.
A medical technologist's starting salary is around $40,000, while a physician working at a blood bank starts out earning roughly $120,000.
This award is another example of what we can accomplish when the Henry Mayo family works together,'' said Cynthia Martin, Blood Bank manager at Henry Mayo.
In response to recent outbreaks of such illnesses as SARS, West Nile virus, and the human form of mad cow disease (Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease), the FDA is forcing blood banks to follow rules that substantially increase the odds that a donor will be rejected.