blood substitute


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blood substitute,

substance that mimics the function of blood. Blood substitutes typically concentrate only on reproducing the function of hemoglobinhemoglobin
, respiratory protein found in the red blood cells (erythrocytes) of all vertebrates and some invertebrates. A hemoglobin molecule is composed of a protein group, known as globin, and four heme groups, each associated with an iron atom.
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, the molecule that carries oxygen through the body, and do not attempt to replicate the blood's other functions. Blood donated by humans must be refrigerated, can be contaminated by such diseases as AIDSAIDS
or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome,
fatal disease caused by a rapidly mutating retrovirus that attacks the immune system and leaves the victim vulnerable to infections, malignancies, and neurological disorders. It was first recognized as a disease in 1981.
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 and hepatitishepatitis
, inflammation of the liver. There are many types of hepatitis. Causes include viruses, toxic chemicals, alcohol consumption, parasites and bacteria, and certain drugs.
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, and is often in short supply. Designers of blood substitutes hope to eliminate these problems and develop genetically engineered or chemical products that will be tolerated by people of all blood types. Some blood substitutes under development use hemoglobin derived from human blood that is too old for use in blood transfusions.
References in periodicals archive ?
The blood substitute can prove to be a boon for many patients who face the problem of unavailability of blood in emergency situations.
A team of researchers at Delhi University's department of Biochemistry, led by professor Suman Kundu, has applied for a patent for laboratory-made haemoglobin which, according to them, enjoys several advantages as a blood substitute.
Her religion permits the use of blood substitutes, and doctors in Melbourne flew in 10 unites of the haemoglobin- based experimental plasma - called HBOC-2-1 - from the U.
Initial attempts at creating a blood substitute from hemoglobin alone have been hampered by several factors.
The development of a blood substitute that not only carries oxygen, but also increases the level of red blood cells, could have broad applications in medicine, especially trauma, elective surgery, acute anemia, cancer and heart disease.
Patients will be randomly selected to receive the blood substitute intravenously or in a standard saline solution at the scene of the accident or on route to the hospital.
Samples for the interference studies were prepared by adding blood substitute and saline to serum.
But a new fluorocarbon-based blood substitute, called Oxygent, uses bromo-perfluoro-octane, a fluorocarbon that is quickly excreted by the lungs.
It's the first blood substitute ever approved for use.
Bollon will discuss the global need for a safe blood substitute as an alternative to contaminated blood.
Presumably, say the authors, if a blood substitute were developed, it would play a major role in the trauma-care and elective-surgery settings, and would benefit patients with medical conditions who need long-term blood transfusions.
In the 1960s, researchers tried to circumvent complications from cell-surface antigens by making a blood substitute using free hemoglobin extracted from cells.