The tricky part, he adds, is separating the baby's DNA from maternal DNA that also floats in the bloodstream.
She and other researchers have identified several different types of fetal cells, such as immature red blood cells and stem cells, that circulate along with placental cells in a mother's bloodstream. Her team is tackling the problem of fetal cells' rarity in maternal blood by developing methods to grow those cells into easy-to-test colonies in the lab.
"They can really pass through and penetrate the bloodstream
," Mathiowitz says.
The New York team examined the concentrations of vitamin C in the mothers' bloodstreams
and in blood from the infants' umbilical cords.
Roughly half of all sepsis patients die-even if an antibiotic manages to clear the bacteria from the bloodstream. In these people, the body's natural antibacterial response runs amok, leading to the dangerous symptoms of sepsis syndrome.
And in June, the FDA asked Xoma to perform a third trial of E5 because the therapy appeared to benefit only sepsis patients with endotoxin in the bloodstream - a subgroup that the two previous studies were not large enough to assess statistically.
Chemicals in the mother's bloodstream
generally don't cause frank malformations once the fetal stage has begun.
In March 2005, CDC reported a multistate outbreak of Pseudomonas fluorescens bloodstream
infections associated with use of syringes preloaded with heparin intravenous catheter flush (1).
HIV-specific CTLs lurk mostly in the bloodstream
, they note, whereas HIV tends to invade lymph nodes.