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1. Psychol a powerful shock that may have long-lasting effects
2. Pathol any bodily injury or wound
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



an externally caused injury to the human or animal organism. Depending on its cause, a trauma may be classified as mechanical, chemical, or thermal (as in burns or frostbite), as a barotrauma (caused by abrupt changes in atmospheric pressure), as an electrotrauma, or as a combination of types of traumas—for example, a mechanical trauma combined with a burn. Depending on the duration of the traumatic event, a trauma may be either acute or chronic. Traumas may also be classified according to the circumstances in which they occur—for example, nonoccupational injuries, industrial accidents, or injuries resulting from athletic activity or military combat.

A mechanical trauma may be an open wound, or it may be a closed injury, with the skin remaining intact; it may be uncomplicated, or it may develop such complications as suppuration, osteomyelitis, sepsis, or traumatic toxicosis; it may be isolated (that is, limited to one organ or part of an extremity) or extensive (with injury to several organs or parts); or it may involve a combination of simultaneous injuries to the internal organs and the muscu-loskeletal system. Specific types of traumas are contusions, sprains, dislocations, fractures, compression of tissues and internal organs, concussions, and ruptures. They may be accompanied by hemorrhage, edema, inflammation, or necrosis (gangrene) of the tissues. Severe and extensive traumas are accompanied by shock and may be fatal. A special type is psychic trauma—a term denoting an emotional shock, and particularly one due to traumatic verbal activity. Psychic traumas may lead to morbid reactions in the psychic and autonomic systems, such as depression and neurosis.

Timely first aid and treatment may prevent severe posttraumatic complications. The various types of traumas are treated by appropriate medical specialists.


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The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


An injury caused by a mechanical or physical agent.
A severe psychic injury.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
* Ascending colon perforation is quite rare in blunt trauma as it is fixed to retroperitoneum.
Evisceration related to blunt trauma, after bicycle accidents, has excellent prognosis with emergent and efficient management although it is an extremely rare condition.
While the average TRISS for our patients with blunt trauma is 86.6, it is 97.4 for penetrating traumas.
"Among children with blunt trauma, WBCT, compared with a selective CT approach, was not associated with lower mortality," the authors write.
Malek, "Angiographic detection of carotid and vertebral arterial injury in the high-energy blunt trauma patient," Journal ofSpinal Disorders & Techniques, vol.
Royce et al., "Lower urinary tract injuries following blunt trauma: a review of contemporary management," Rev Urol.
TAWHs are a rare sequelae of blunt abdominal trauma with an estimated incidence of 0.07% in a large single-center retrospective analysis of CT scans performed for blunt trauma [8].
In pediatric patients with renal injuries, non-operative management is the preferred course of treatment for all grades in the setting of stable patients who have suffered blunt trauma. (4) This is due in part to the unique physiology of the pediatric patient having smaller diameter blood vessels and an enhanced vasoconstrictive response as compared to the same response in adults.
Rectal injuries secondary to blunt trauma are still rare and more difficult to diagnose, and therefore have a potentially more terrible outcome.[sup][1] Moreover, because of the greater number and severity of associated injuries, morbidity and mortality are higher in blunt rectal trauma than in penetrating rectal trauma.[sup][1] Especially, extraperitoneal rectal injury secondary to blunt abdominal trauma is rarer and is usually seen in association with comminuted fractures of the pelvis or sacrum and evidence of peritoneal injury.[sup][3] Extraperitoneal rectal injury continues to be a source of significant morbidity and mortality, primarily because of lethal infectious complications.
In cases of blunt trauma, sharp weapon injuries and firearm injuries, there was a huge preponderance of victims from rural areas (65%), (62%) and 61% respectively, with urban cases constituting less.
The diagnosis of traumatic diaphragmatic injury should be considered in any patient who has sustained blunt trauma to the lower chest, and upper abdomen regions, watchful observation, and high index of suspicion are necessary.