boll weevil


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boll weevil

or

cotton boll weevil

(bōl), cotton-eating weevilweevil,
common name for certain beetles of the snout beetle family (Curculionidae), small, usually dull-colored, hard-bodied insects. The mouthparts of snout beetles are modified into down-curved snouts, or beaks, adapted for boring into plants; the jaws are at the end of the
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, or snout beetle, Anthonomus grandis. Probably of Mexican or Central American origin, it appeared in Texas about 1892 and spread to most cotton-growing regions of the United States. Over the years the weevil became a significant pest, destroying about 8% of the annual U.S. cotton crop. Boll weevil devastation was a major reason for diversification of the South's historic cotton economy. In 1978, however, the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture began a concerted eradication campaign. By the end of the century the weevil had disappeared from from most of the nation except Texas, Louisiana, and Mississippi, where the campaign continued.

The young adult is grayish, darkening with age, and about 1-4 in. (6 mm) long, with a long snout for boring into the cotton boll, or seed pod, where weevils feed on the cotton fibers. Weevils may also invade cotton flower buds before they mature into bolls. Females lay eggs within the bud or the boll, where pupation (see insectinsect,
invertebrate animal of the class Insecta of the phylum Arthropoda. Like other arthropods, an insect has a hard outer covering, or exoskeleton, a segmented body, and jointed legs. Adult insects typically have wings and are the only flying invertebrates.
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) occurs. The larvae eat the entire contents of the boll. Metamorphosis from egg to adult takes about three weeks; from 2 to 10 generations occur each season. The weevil's resistance to some poisons, and the removal of some poisons from the market, have encouraged Integrated Pest ManagementIntegrated Pest Management
(IPM), planned program that coordinates economically and environmentally acceptable methods of pest control with the judicious and minimal use of toxic pesticides.
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, e.g., the use of safer insecticides, synthetic growth regulators, and pheromone traps, and the release of sterile males to frustrate reproduction. Adults are also controlled by elimination of field litter, especially cotton stalks, in which they overwinter. Short-season cotton, bred to mature early, escapes much damage from weevil larvae.

The boll weevil is classified in the phylum ArthropodaArthropoda
[Gr.,=jointed feet], largest and most diverse animal phylum. The arthropods include crustaceans, insects, centipedes, millipedes, spiders, scorpions, and the extinct trilobites.
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, class Insecta, order Coleoptera, family Curculionidae.

Bibliography

See P. P. Sikorowski et al., Boll Weevil Mass Rearing Technology (1984); G. Matthews and J. Tunstall, Insect Pests of Cotton (1992).

boll weevil

[′bōl ‚wē·vəl]
(invertebrate zoology)
A beetle, Anthonomus grandis, of the order Coleoptera; larvae destroy cotton plants and are the most important pests in agriculture.
References in periodicals archive ?
In the Brazilian Cerrado region, the absence of more effective control, as observed in the present study, can favor the survival of boll weevil (Ribeiro et al., 2015), which is the reason why the Brazilian legislation of plant sanitary defense of the states Goias and Bahia recommends that, during the sanitary fallow period, there should be no cotton stalk regrowth, i.e., all plants should be destroyed by chemical (herbicide) or physical (mechanical) processes.
Boll weevil infestations which are allowed to develop during the winter may be extremely difficult to control during the following season.
Researchers have attempted to mechanize the collection of these fruiting structures infested by cotton boll weevil. COAD & MCGEHEE (1917) built a machine to collect boll weevil adults and squares of infested cotton plants, but their attempts to control the boll weevil were unsuccessful.
Ryan links Patton's song to Faulkner through both artists' use of the boll weevil, citing a passage in The Sound and the Fury to prove his point--Jason Compson's "duet" with the elder African American, Uncle Job.
The great genetic variability and phenotypic plasticity of the boll weevil makes it able to adapt to a wide variety of environmental conditions, allowing the expansion of its geographical distribution beyond its center of origin (Central America) (Showler, 2009).
Charlie Rawlings's ascendancy in the New South was an American success story until the Great War and boll weevil destroyed not only his personal fortune but also the fortunes of many other Southerners.
(2005) conducted an experiment regarding the effect of sowing dates on the population of boll weevils, they concluded that squares damage of boll weevils were 44-56% more abundant in later planted treatments than in the earlier planted treatments.
The Texas Boll Weevil Eradication Foundation should be private enough to require active supervision under either the Fourth Circuit's or FTC and Areeda-Hovenkamp standards, because it's both peopled with growers and accountable to (that is, elected by) growers.
The seeds were in fact genetically modified seeds by multinational monster corporation Monsanto--MON on the New York Stock Exchange for those out of the loop--which promised farmers that with GM cotton seed, never again would they have to deal with the evil cotton boll weevil, a pestilence that destroyed about half their annual crop.
A significant positive correlation between genetic variation and geographical distance was found for boll weevil Anthonomus grandis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) populations in the United States (Kim and Sappington, 2004).
In the early 20th century, more hard times came to the region when the boll weevil arrived and devastated the cotton crop.