In Arizona, Carriere and his colleagues analyzed data on cotton varieties and pink bollworm
infestations from 1991--5 years before the introduction of Bt cotton--until 2001.
Esquivel at College Station, Texas, have years of expertise developing new tactics to fight two of cotton's worst enemies--cotton bollworms
In a statement issued by media liaison unit of Punjab agriculture department, the experts said that almost a million cotton bales are affected by pink bollworm
The damage caused by American bollworm
was negligible, therefore, not included in the data.
Citrullus colocynthis, Helicoverpa armigera, IPM, Cotton bollworm
, Insecticide resistance.
Off-season management strategy adopted well before cotton sowing would minimize the chances of attack by pink bollworm
and other pests, he said.
According to Cotton Ginners Forum Chairman Ihsanul Haq, the Punjab government has put restrictions on cotton sowing before mid-April under Section 144 believing that it will save the crop from pink bollworm
Excessive rains and pest infestations, especially pink bollworm
, thus had a detrimental effect on the last cotton crop," said Naseem Usman, a leading cotton trader.
He also pointed out that there is a lack of researches in pink bollworm
and urged the entomologists to come up with the viable solutions to the problem.
At the same time cotton accounts for 58% of the insecticides used in India and 60% of the insecticides used are to control the "bollworm
complex" Helicoverpa zea, the American bollworm
or tomato grub and Helicoverpa armigera, the Old World bollworm
The main reason behind cotton collapse had been attributed to substandard imported seed which was not immune from pest attack as claimed and absence of any spray to kill pink bollworm
which destroyed 60 per cent of the crop, he added.
The larvae of the pink bollworm
attack plants at the beginning of the fruiting stage causing huge losses to the cotton green bolls, fibers and seeds and accordingly great reduction in the cotton yield .