The force transferred from the concrete to the reinforcing steel was calculated using Equation (1), while the bond stress
which occured in the reinforcing steel element was obtained by Equation (2).
The bond stress
was determined using the detachment method or pull-out of the fiber in tension (Valadez, 1999), according to equation 1.
3] is the group reduction factor associated with the number of fibres pulling out per unit area; [tau] is the average bond stress
of a single fibre embedded in the concrete; [V.
where [alpha]--coefficient representing the shape factor of the bond stress
distribution along the transfer zone: [alpha] = 2 for uniform bond stress
distribution (linear variation in strand stress); [alpha] = 3 for linear descending bond stress
distribution (parabolic variation in strand stress); [f.
The bond stress
at the de-bonded zone is kept as the reduced value of the bond strength considering the bond condition of the de-bonded zone.
Based on this idealized bond stress
distribution, it was expected that AE events are created when a certain stress threshold is crossed along the embedment length ([l.
Stresses predicted by bond stress
analysis and lap shear strength as a function of adhesive modulus.
Furthermore where, q1, q2 and qy1, qy2 are the bond stress
and the yield stress of the first and second layers respectively.
In the vicinity of cracks, reinforcement slip occurs and bond stress
develops between the reinforcing bar and surrounding concrete, transmitting tensile force from the bar to concrete.
In a study on the effect of mix proportion and reinforcement size on the anchorage bond stress
of laterized concrete; Osunade and Babalola  established that both mix proportion and the size of reinforcement have a significant effect on the anchorage bond stress
of laterized concrete specimens.
While those behind the North East Enterprise Bond stress
that its success will be hard to quantify, they believe it will have a real effect on the region.