"The key step that we are finding out is that it is this initial interaction with proteins that the bone cells
are responding to," says Webster.
The two proteins complement each other in that BMP2 helps to turn non-bone cells into boneforming cells, and NELL-1 then increases the boneforming ability of bone cells
Recently it has been reported that they secrete a number of chemicals that control the native mineralization and differentiation of bone cells
Research conducted at Japan's National Institute for Materials Science built on previous findings that gold nanoparticles can encourage stem cells in the bone marrow to differentiate into bone cells
, and that specific biomolecules can inhibit or promote stem cell differentiation.
Dietary lycopene (from foods like watermelon or tomatoes) reduces oxidative stress which normally reduces the activity of osteoblasts (the two major bone cells
involved in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis) - this means stronger bones for those consuming lycopene-rich foods.
Using bone samples from people undergoing hip replacement surgery, researchers from the University of Southampton were able to show that the drug - a protein that activates a molecular pathway called the 'Wnt' pathway - causes stem cells found within bones to divide and to turn into more bone cells
Among specific topics are bone modeling and remodeling, skeletal hard tissue biomechanics, skeletal growth and development, hormonal effects on bone cells
, and pharmaceutical treatments of osteoporosis.
The authors concluded that the CaP/gel/Ti implants fabricated using their urease process not only enhanced the proliferation of stem cells and differentiation of bone cells
, but also the bone bonding ability of the implants.
(They chose the cancer cells because the cells are particularly hardy, and also reproduce the same way healthy bone cells
The findings confirmed previous work showing that tributyltin affects the regulation of body fat production and reprograms certain stem cells to become fat cells rather than bone cells
Libera has been awarded a patent titled “Surfaces Differentially Adhesive to Bacteria & Eukaryotic Cells” for a technology that repels bacteria and promotes the growth of bone cells
around an implant.
The ability to control whether certain stem cells ultimately become bone cells
holds great promise for regenerative medicine and potential therapies aimed at treating metabolic bone diseases.