bonobo

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bonobo,

smaller of two species of chimpanzeechimpanzee,
an ape, genus Pan, of the equatorial forests of central and W Africa. Smaller populations are also found in the savannas of the same regions. The common chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes, lives N of the Congo River.
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, genus Pan. Whereas the common chimpanzee, P. troglodytes, lives in forests across most of equatorial Africa, the bonobo, P. paniscus (sometimes called the pygmy chimpanzee), is found only in the Congo (Kinshasa) S of the Congo River. The bonobo has a more slender body build than the common chimpanzee, but there is considerable overlap in overall size (head-and-body length and weight) among individuals of the two species.

Bonobos share many behavioral traits with common chimpanzees; e.g., they tend to associate in groups, are day-active, build sleeping nests in trees, and eat mostly fruit and other vegetable matter. Their groups are usually larger than those of common chimpanzees, however, and often the females are closely bonded and tend to dominate males. Moreover, both males and females appear to use sexual contact as a means of communication and a way to ease tensions that might otherwise erupt into conflict, though there is evidence to suggest this is much more common in captive, rather than wild, bonobos. Bonobos are generally less violent than common chimpanzees, and there are fewer conflicts between neighboring bonobo communities. Both bonobos and common chimpanzees have been able to learn the meanings of many human words (although they cannot vocalize them), and they can be trained to communicate with humans by using sign language or symbol boards.

The bonobo is listed as an endangered species. The few thousand that remain in the wild are hunted by humans, and their habitat is being fragmented by encroaching human settlement, agriculture, and logging operations. Bonobos are classified in the phylum ChordataChordata
, phylum of animals having a notochord, or dorsal stiffening rod, as the chief internal skeletal support at some stage of their development. Most chordates are vertebrates (animals with backbones), but the phylum also includes some small marine invertebrate animals.
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, subphylum Vertebrata, class Mammalia, order Primates, family Hominidae.

Bibliography

See study by F. de Waal (1997).

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Various noninvasive research investigates language, tool use, abstract thought, and music, among other behaviors within the bonobo colony.
"If you lined up ten female bonobos, it's not like one would be a 6 on the Kinsey scale and another a 2.
In many social animal species individuals share child-rearing duties, but new research from the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, finds that bonobo mothers go the extra step and actually take action to ensure their sons will become fathers.
The bonobo chimp has much to recommend himself over Unicorn or Elephant.
The researchers first explored the differences in gene expression related to neuronal movement, comparing human, chimpanzee and bonobo cells.
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Bonobos can also be seen at the Lola Ya Bonobo Sanctuary in Kinshasa, close to safer, neighbouring Republic of Congo, which is more accessible - although FCO advisories still apply.
As the bonobos gradually got used to their newfound freedom, they became increasingly confused by the persisting presence of the trackers.
Audrey Schulman's engrossing novel is a combination of dystopian fiction, science fiction, and a love story, uniting bonobos and survival in the not-so-distant future.
The gorgeous book showcases breathtaking new shots of gorillas, chimps, orangutans and bonobos by esteemed photographers including Art Wolfe, Frans Lanting and Martyn Colbeck.
ENIGMATIC: Bonobos eat fruit at the Lola ya Bonoba orphans sanctuary outside Kinshasa, Congo.