Because of the global deformation of shear wall limb, the deformation of steel truss CB will include rigid body motion, the rotation at the end of CB chords, and relative displacements of top and bottom chord
The difference between the road and rail trusses typically was the road bridges had the bottom chord
(tension) constructed from timber whereas the rail bridges had the bottom chord
constructed from steel.
The damage indicators of members 1 and 32, which are diagonal and bottom chord
members in damage Cases B and C, are close to -0.018 and -0.0077, respectively, and the estimated damage severities are 19.81% and 20.11%.
It is to be noted here that, for Figure 2, the fundamental mode shape corresponding to the bottom chord
is used, whereas, in Figure 3, the fundamental mode shape corresponding to the top chord is utilized for damage localization.
The bottom chord
of the trusses gets into a zone of the neutral line, therefore the internal forces are insignificant and even change the sign.
"The bottom chord
, especially the middle truss, is discolored due to severe exposure to the fire," they noted.
The optimal cross-sectional areas of the bottom chord
and vertical web elements are found to be smaller, meanwhile cross-sectional areas of the top chord and inclined web elements--bigger in the case C2.
"Oval hubs in the bottom chord
of the domes' ribs allowed us to use two rectangular bars in parallel, reducing the overall arch count, and increasing structural efficiency." Gracia explained.
The bottom chord
adopts a channel cross section with a beam height of 1.5 m, and the beam end is 2.0 m thick.
The chambers of single cable and cable truss bottom chord
f are equal to 20 m.
At each of the seven spacer locations, paint glue on a spacer and the bottom chord
where it fits, and position the spacer on the bottom chord
, against the spacer stops.