Hurtado2 and Hernandez3 showed that mandibular incisors are significantly more proclined in dolicofacial patients as compared to the brachyfacial patients.
Their results showed that statistically significant differences were present in mandibular incisor inclination among dolicofacial (hyperdivergent) and brachyfacial (hypodivergent) subjects, dolicofacial subjects had greater incisor inclination than brachyfacial subjects.
Moreover, for every standard deviation toward the brachyfacial
side, it tends to close 1[degrees].
The sample was divided into three groups (mesofacial, brachyfacial
and dolichofacial) (Table 2) using three angular measurements (Ricketts, 1989) (Figure 1), i.e., facial axis (Ba-Na to Pt-Gn), total facial height (Na-Ba to Ba-PM) and lower face height (ANS-Xi to Xi-PM).
He showed a brachyfacial
pattern and midface/maxillary arch hypoplasia (Figure 4) but a poor oral-hygiene level; the obturator had been properly used, and marked improvement in swallowing and feeding during the previous 3 months was manifested.
Thus, one assumes that a dolichofacial or hyperdivergent patient presents with a thinner and longer alveolar process in the lower incisor region but that a patient with a brachyfacial
growth pattern has a thicker and shorter alveolar process.
There are three basic facial biotypes: brachyfacial
, mesofacial, and dolichofacial.
It has been reported that the masticatory muscles of dolichofacial subjects are less efficient in generating bite force at a particular point on the lever arm, due to reduced mechanics when compared to brachyfacial
Based on our measurements and calculations, facial types were designated as either dolichofacial (long face), mesofacial (harmonic), or brachyfacial
(short) according to the classification described by Ricketts et al (figure 6).
The study concluded that brachyfacial
subjects over dolichofacial and mesiofacials provides increased space for full eruption of the mandibular third molars, so decreased mandibular 3rd molar impactions were seen in brachyfacials
as compared to the other two groups.
The facial skeletal pattern, often referred as facial type, when analyzed radiographically, can be classified as dolichofacial (more long and narrow face), brachyfacial
(more shorter and wider face), and mesiofacial (intermediate type) (RICKETTS et al., 1979).
* Extreme brachyfacial
types with short alveolar and crown height dimensions