Most representative carabid beetle species were brachypterous
or apterous (see Figure 5(b)).
(i) We predict that consistent differences emerge between the body weights of macropterous and brachypterous
individuals due to the different development of flight musculature.
MEASUREMENTS (N = 2): Male and Female (in parentheses) brachypterous
form: Head length 1.27-1.28 [male] (1.33 [female]); width across eyes 1.40 [male] (1.40 [female]); interocular space 0.99 1.00 [male] (0.96 [female]); interocellar space 0.
, elytriform, with venation caeciliusid, pterostigma wider in the middle, Rs and M almost straight, areola postica elongate, posteriorly almost reaching M3; hindwing represented by a small winglet (Fig.
-- Wings (brachypterous
or 2 macropterous) or wing buds present 1'.
These fairly small, brachypterous
and diurnal grasshoppers are found in elevations from 1500 to 4200 m, mostly between 2500 and 3500 m, usually in paramo habitats.
Laccocoris limicola is in the spurcus group, which is characterized as having slightly shortened membranes of the hemelytra and brachypterous
or micropterous hindwings, and the posterolateral angles of the pronotum are more or less acute and recurved caudad (Poisson 1949; Linnavuori 1987).
He furthermore diagnosed Macroveliidae by the eggs having several micropyles; Macrovelia by the flightless, brachypterous
form; Oravelia by the first antennal segment being longer than the head width, and Chepuvelia by the abdominal scent orifice being situated on a prominent tubercle.
Certain species of Hieroglyphus present interesting complex, as they appear in swarm (Ghouri and Ahmed, 1960), while some are dimorphic, occurring in both brachypterous
as well as in macropterous forms.
In a competitive setting in the laboratory, brachypterous
males exhibited a threefold mating advantage over macropterous males; they obtained 77% of the matings with brachypterous
Most of the individually reared water striders were wingless: of the 89 females with complete data, only one was winged, and of the 70 males, five were winged (two of them brachypterous
), although the mass culture in the same room produced a higher proportion of winged bugs.