brain-machine interface


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brain-machine interface

A physical connection between a human brain and an electronic device. Also called a "neural interface," "mind-machine interface" (MMI) and "brain-computer interface" (BCI), the brain-machine interface (BMI) is focused on managing the movement of prosthetic limbs and enabling vision for the blind. The first interfaces were prototyped with animals in the 1990s and later on humans.

Non-Invasive and Invasive
Brain-machine interfaces may be non-invasive, with sensors on the head detecting brainwaves. However, the most precise functionality has been observed with sensors implanted in the brain tissue. The sensor detects the firing rate of a neuron, and the firing pattern can be mapped to the person's thoughts that in turn control specific robotic motions. Implantation is dangerous and controversial, and experts predict wireless, non-invasive systems will win out in the future. See brain-to-brain interface.
References in periodicals archive ?
Zheng, "Neural control of a tracking task via attention-gated reinforcement learning for brain-machine interfaces," IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering, vol.
"The next step is to advance the development of brain-machine interface algorithms using the principles of control theory and statistical signal processing," Shanechi says.
Before invasive technologies such as brain-machine interfaces and customized spinal cord stimulation arrays can become widely available, however, they will have to prove their mettle in long-term clinical trials involving large numbers of patients--trials that will likely cost millions of dollars.
Nicolelis, "Brain-machine interfaces to restore motor function and probe neural circuits," Nature Reviews Neuroscience, vol.
Yin et al., "Wireless cortical brain-machine interface for whole-body navigation in primates," Scientific Reports, vol.
In Scheuermann's case, at least, her brain-machine interface has proved to be powerful medicine.
But what the team has packed inside makes it a major advance among brain-machine interfaces, said lead author David Borton, a former Brown graduate student and postdoctoral research associate who is now at Ecole Polytechnique Federale Lausanne in Switzerland.
Our study shows for the first time that performance of a brain-machine interface can be significantly improved with the addition of kinesthetic and tactile sensation to help guide the device's movement.
His hope is to develop a brain-machine interface device that lasts up to 10 years, making it a practical choice to implant one in the brain of a motor-impaired patient.
TEHRAN (FNA)- Neuroscientists developed a brain-machine interface (BMI) that allows primates to use only their thoughts to navigate a robotic wheelchair.
This brain-machine interface work is all part of an international effort called the Walk Again Project to build a whole-body exoskeleton that could help paralyzed people regain motor and sensory abilities using brain activity to control the apparatus.