amino acid

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amino acid

(əmē`nō), any one of a class of simple organic compounds containing carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and in certain cases sulfur. These compounds are the building blocks of proteins. They are characterized by the presence of a carboxyl group (COOH) and an amino group (NH2) attached to the same carbon at the end of the compound. The 20 amino acids commonly found in animals are alaninealanine
, organic compound, one of the 20 amino acids commonly found in animal proteins. Only the l-stereoisomer participates in the biosynthesis of proteins (see stereochemistry).
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, argininearginine
, organic compound, one of the 20 amino acids commonly found in animal proteins. Only the l-stereoisomer participates in the biosynthesis of proteins.
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, asparagineasparagine
, organic compound, one of the 20 amino acids commonly found in animal proteins. Only the l-stereoisomer participates in the biosynthesis of mammalian proteins.
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, aspartic acidaspartic acid
, organic compound, one of the 20 amino acids commonly found in animal proteins. Only the l-stereoisomer participates in the biosynthesis of proteins.
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, cysteinecysteine
, organic compound, one of the 20 amino acids commonly found in animal proteins. Only the l-stereoisomer participates in the biosynthesis of mammalian protein.
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, glutamic acidglutamic acid
, organic compound, one of the 20 amino acids commonly found in animal proteins. Only the l-stereoisomer occurs in mammalian proteins.
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, glutamineglutamine
, organic compound, one of the 20 amino acids commonly found in animal proteins. Only the l-stereoisomer occurs in mammalian protein.
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, glycineglycine
, organic compound, one of the 20 amino acids commonly found in animal proteins. Glycine is the only one of these amino acids that is not optically active, i.e., it does not have d- and
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, histidinehistidine
, organic compound, one of the 22 α-amino acids commonly found in animal proteins. Only the l-stereoisomer appears in mammalian protein.
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, isoleucineisoleucine
, organic compound, one of the 20 amino acids commonly found in animal proteins. Only the l-stereoisomer appears in mammalian protein.
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, leucineleucine
, organic compund, one of the 20 amino acids commonly found in animal proteins. Only the l-stereooisomer appears in mammalian protein.
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, lysinelysine
, organic compound, one of the 20 amino acids commonly found in animal proteins. Only the l-stereoisomer appears in mammalian protein.
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, methioninemethionine
, organic compound, one of the 20 amino acids commonly found in animal proteins. Only the L-stereoisomer appears in mammalian protein. It is one of the several essential amino acids needed in the diet; the human body cannot synthesize it from simpler metabolites.
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, phenylalaninephenylalanine
, organic compound, one of the 22 α-amino acids commonly found in animal proteins. Only the l-stereoisomer appears in mammalian protein.
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, prolineproline
, organic compound, one of the 20 amino acids commonly found in animal proteins. Only the l-stereoisomer appears in mammalian protein.
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, serineserine
, organic compound, one of the 20 amino acids commonly found in animal proteins. Only the l-stereoisomer appears in mammalian protein.
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, threoninethreonine
, organic compound, one of the 22 α-amino acids commonly found in animal proteins. Only the l-stereoisomer appears in mammalian protein.
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, tryptophantryptophan
, organic compound, one of the 20 amino acids commonly found in animal proteins. Only the l-stereoisomer appears in mammalian protein.
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, tyrosinetyrosine
, organic compound, one of the 20 amino acids commonly found in animal proteins. Only the l-stereoisomer appears in mammalian protein.
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, and valinevaline
, organic compound, one of the 22 α-amino acids commonly found in animal proteins. Only the l-stereoisomer appears in mammalian protein.
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. In addition to these 20, scientists have synthesized more than 70 artificial amino acids that are not found in animals, and more than 100 less common amino acids also occur in biological systems, particularly in plants. Every amino acid except glycine can occur as either of two optically active stereoisomers, d or l; the more common isomerisomer
, in chemistry, one of two or more compounds having the same molecular formula but different structures (arrangements of atoms in the molecule). Isomerism is the occurrence of such compounds. Isomerism was first recognized by J. J. Berzelius in 1827.
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 in nature is the l-form. When the carboxyl carbon atom of one amino acid covalently binds to the amino nitrogen atom of another amino acid with the release of a water molecule, a peptidepeptide,
organic compound composed of amino acids linked together chemically by peptide bonds. The peptide bond always involves a single covalent link between the α-carboxyl (oxygen-bearing carbon) of one amino acid and the amino nitrogen of a second amino acid.
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 bond is formed. Amino acids are released in the intestinal tract by the digestion of food proteins and are then carried in the bloodstream to the body cells, where they are used for growth, maintenance, and repair. Cellular catabolism breaks amino acids down into smaller fragments. Many of the amino acids necessary in metabolism can be synthesized in the human or animal body when needed; these are called nonessential. Others cannot be synthesized in sufficient quantities; these are termed essential and must be provided in the diet. Synthetic amino acids have been used by scientists as markers to track biological processes and as components of disease treatments; artificial amino acids can in some cases increase the effectivenesss of treatments by slowing the normal breakdown of the hormone or other biologic into which they are incorporated.

amino acid

[ə′mē‚nō ′as·əd]
(biochemistry)
Any of the organic compounds that contain one or more basic amino groups and one or more acidic carboxyl groups and that are polymerized to form peptides and proteins; only 20 of the more than 80 amino acids found in nature serve as building blocks for proteins; examples are tyrosine and lysine.

amino acid

any of a group of organic compounds containing one or more amino groups, -NH2, and one or more carboxyl groups, -COOH. The alpha-amino acids RCH(NH2)COOH (where R is either hydrogen or an organic group) are the component molecules of proteins; some can be synthesized in the body (nonessential amino acids) and others cannot and are thus essential components of the diet (essential amino acids)
References in periodicals archive ?
Plasma branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) concentrations were measured 12 times since the ingestion of cow's milk, over a period of 8 months.
Effects of diets supplemented with branched-chain amino acids on the performance and fatigue mechanisms of rats submitted to prolonged physical exercise.
Formerly, studies have shown that a drop in plasma branched-chain amino acid levels in cases with urea-cycle metabolism disorders can be obtained with sodium phenylacetate/benzoate or sodium phenylbutyrate (NaPB) treatments [4, 5].
Apelo et al., "Decreased consumption of branched-chain amino acids improves metabolic health," Cell Reports, vol.
Effect of branched-chain amino acid and carbohydrate supplementation on the exercise-induced change in plasma and muscle concentration of amino acids in human subjects.
The Effects of Branched-Chain Amino Acid Supplementation on Indirect Indicators of Muscle Damage and Performance.
Tovar et al., "Omental adipose tissue gene expression, gene variants, branched-chain amino acids, and their relationship with metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in humans," Genes and Nutrition, vol.
Efficacy of the branched-chain amino acids in the treatment of tardive dyskinesia in men.
"The gains for participants consuming whey protein (3.3 kg) were, however, significantly greater than for participants consuming soy protein (1.8 kg)--potentially due to the higher levels of plasma branched-chain amino acids, especially leucine, observed in the whey protein group."
It is rich in branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) such as leucine, isoleucine and valine, which are metabolized directly into the muscle tissue and are the first used during periods of exercise and resistance training.
Leucine, isoleucine and valine, known as branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), account for a fraction of the 20 amino acids from which proteins are made, but appear to have anti-ageing properties.
Changes in the exercise induced hormone response to branched-chain amino acids. European J.

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