(4) One of them has been suggested by Poswillo, who claims that the cause would be a vascular disruption causing bleeding during embryologic formation of the stapedial artery, accompanied with alterations in the development of the first and the second branchial arches
. The size of hematoma and the resulting tissue injury would explain the morphology and different variations of HFM in experimental models, since the larger in size the larger the alterations in the development of branchial arches
Histologically, it was observed that 14 individuals caught in area I had unchanged branchial arches
. In this case, each branchial arch was composed of a cartilaginous structure, vascular and muscle tissue supporting the branchial filaments (Figure 1).
aureus uses crossflow filtration rather than deadend sieving or hydrosol filtration to retain suspended food particles inside the oropharyngeal cavity as filtrate exits between the gill rakers and between the branchial arches
Styloid process and ligament are derived from first and second branchial arches
and Reichert's cartilage.
(1) It is postulated that these are developmental lesions derived from remnants of the cartilaginous matrix of the second and third branchial arches
. (2,4) Another possibility is that osseous choristomas may represent reactive lesions that result from trauma or chronic irritation.
Prevention of retinoic acid-induced early craniofacial abnormalities by folinic acid and expression of endothelin-1/dHAND in the branchial arches
The development of the tongue starts at the fourth week of intrauterine life in the floor of the primitive cavity from the first three or four branchial arches
. Abnormal/partial/ non-fusion of these arches may lead to congenital anomalies of tongue, including bifid tongue.
(37) By the 4th week of embryonic life, 4-paired mesodermal arches are apparent externally, with smaller 5th and 6th branchial arches
not well visualized.
When the fish eggs hatched, the two found the branchial arches
- bits of cartilage that support the gills and correspond to parts of the jaw in humans - appeared altered.
The ossified parts of the gill rakers from the branchial arches
of left and right sides are rather simple, cone-shaped and tapered upwards (Fig.
The visceral arches include the mandibular arch, constituted by the mandibular and hyoidean arches and the branchial arches
which sustains the gills.
However, interactions between rhombomeric segments of the hindbrain, neural crest cells, and branchial arches
are thought to be influenced by overlapping expression domains of Hox genes; moreover, the anterior-posterior patterning of the head is regulated by a Hox code in the branchial region (Hunt et al., 1991) that may be influenced by endogenous RA.