vulgaris and Eledone moschata (Messenger et al., 1974; Muzii, 1981; Lang, 1988), the ovoid cells of the branchial heart in Sepia sp.
Cytobiological studies on hemocyanin metabolism in the branchial heart complex of the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis (Cephalopoda, Dibranchiata).
Examination of these sections showed that the most commonly affected tissues were the kidney, branchial heart appendage, branchial heart, and gill (42%).
Finally, multifocal, necrotizing, granulomatous-like inflammation of intermediate size was commonly found in branchial heart and its appendage (0.2-0.7 mm diameter) (Fig.
Severe, necrotizing hemocytic inflammation also occurred in the serosa of various organs including the branchial heart and stomach, which are anatomically suspended in large vascular sinuses.
In the circulation, the bacteria lodged in the branchial heart, resulting in foci of moderate inflammation and necrosis.
Additionally, the data collected in this study indicate that, when systemic bacterial disease is suspected in Sepia spp., the branchial heart and branchial heart appendage should be examined histologically, and bacterial cultures should be obtained from the renal sac.
Tissue was extracted variously from the left ventral mantle, left fin, left second arm, and left branchial heart. It has been shown that mantle muscle of some cephalopods is divided into distinct layers analogous to vertebrate white and red muscle (Bone et al., 1981; Mommsen et al., 1981).
The activities of octopine dehydrogenase (ODH), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and citrate synthase (CS) in mantle, fin, arm, and branchial heart muscle tissue for 26 species of pelagic cephalopods are presented in Table 1.
The highest CS activities overall were found in branchial heart muscle; mean values ranged from 0.47 units [g.sup.-1] in the deep-living squid Joubiniteuthis portieri, to 26.66 units [g.sup.-1] in the epipelagic squid Sthenoteuthis oualaniensis.
Further evidence of reduced metabolism and locomotory capacity among deep-sea cephalopods was provided by enzymatic activities in branchial heart muscle.
Sections of approximately 0.5 g of fin, mantle or arm, or whole branchial hearts were homogenized in varying dilutions of 0.01 M Tris homogenization buffer, pH 7.5, at 10[degrees]C in Duall hand-held glass homogenizers kept on ice.