Graham and Wirth (2008) argued that wind is the most important dispersal mechanism of branchiopod cysts on the Colorado Plateau.
For example, Green and his colleagues have documented the importance of waterbirds in dispersal of propagules of a variety of aquatic invertebrates, although they found few branchiopod cysts (Frisch et al., 2007; Green et al., 2008; Brochet et al., 2010).
The occurrence of large branchiopod
crustaceans in perennial pans: a research note.
The brain was also composed of three fused segments, whereas in branchiopods only two segments are fused.
"In branchiopods, there are always only two visual neuropils and they are not linked by crossing fibers.
Evolution has not been especially kind to branchiopods to this point.
These days, branchiopods fare best in pools that periodically dry up, making it harder for those predatory aquatic insects to get established.
Species richness of calanoid copepods, cladocerans and other branchiopods
in Carolina Bay temporary ponds.
research in the Neotropics is becoming increasingly sophisticated, with Mexico, Brazil and Venezuela taking the lead (e.g., Hollwedel et al., 2003; Elmoor-Loureiro, 2007; Zoppi de Roa and Vasquez, 1991; Elias-Guttierez et al., 2008; Zoppi de Roa and Lopez, 2008).
Phenoloxidase activity has been described in the water flea Daphnia magna (Mucklow and Ebert, 2003) and in hemocytes of the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana (Martin et al., 1999), although there are no complete cDNA sequences published for the branchiopod
Furthermore, although electron microscopic methods have been used to study the hearts of several branchiopods
- Daphnia (Stein et al., 1966), Lepidurus (Tjonneland et al., 1980), Branchinecta, Artemia, Branchipus, and Streptocephalus (Okland et al., 1982) - no neural elements have ever been reported.
Tadpole shrimp (Triops longicaudatus LeConte) are primitive branchiopod
crustaceans that face extreme environmental conditions in the ephemeral desert pools that they inhabit.