the teaching of horses to fulfill their work in harness and under saddle. There are two periods of breaking-in: the first is saddle-breaking, or teaching the horse to wear the harness or saddle and to obey a person; and the second is training, which entails the gradual development of the horse’s ability to fulfill the required work. Breaking-in of draft horses begins at age two, of trotters at ten to 12 months, and of saddle horses at 1½ years. The trotter colt is first accustomed to the bridle, reins, and running harness, and then to the harness and to moving at a trot in light sleds, sulkies, and carriages with Russian harnesses. Stud-farm training of trotting horses continues until age two, after which trotters are sent to hippodromes. Breaking-in of saddle horses begins with accustoming the animal to bridle, bit, and saddle, and then to light riders (up to 40 or 45 kg). During the breaking-in of saddle horses the free movements of walking, trotting, and slow and fast galloping are gradually worked out. Manege breaking-in of sport saddle horses is a type of equestrian sport.
A. S. KRASNIKOV