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Difficult or labored breathing.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



disruption of the rate and depth of respiration, accompanied by the sensation of shortness of breath.

Cardiac patients experience dyspnea both while physically exerting themselves and while subsequently resting in the horizontal position. Their condition is complicated by orthopnea, the inability to breathe except in a sitting position. In patients with cardiac diseases, attacks of severe dyspnea, which usually occur at night, are a symptom of cardiac asthma. In such cases, the dyspnea is inspiratory; that is, the patient finds it difficult to inhale. Expiratory dyspnea, difficulty in exhaling, arises when the lumina of the small bronchi and bronchioles are narrowed, as in bronchial asthma. It also arises when the elasticity of the lung tissue is lost, as in chronic emphysema of the lungs. Cerebral dyspnea is a result of direct irritation of the cerebral respiratory center by such abnormalities as tumors and hemorrhages.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Health Minister Greg Hunt said, 'KAPANOL helps with the relief of distressing chronic breathlessness in the palliative care of patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), cardiac failure, malignancy or other causes and this listing will benefit around 20,000 Australian patients per year.'
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On third post-operative day one episode of breathlessness and tachycardia was experienced, controlled on Bisoprolol tablets.
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After breathlessness, it takes 38 seconds on average for a person to regain their regular breathing pattern.
STAY ACTIVE Being active can help to manage breathlessness as it strengthens your muscles and increases your fitness.
"If you know anyone who has any of these symptoms, encourage them to see their doctor as breathlessness can also be a symptom of other conditions such as anxiety or anaemia."
Breathlessness can be caused by anemia, which means there is not enough hemoglobin in your blood to carry oxygen from your lungs to the rest of your body (we'll be covering this topic in more depth in an upcoming issue).
"I think I knew deep down something wasn't right - he'd been complaining about breathlessness for a few years and he'd get out of breath walking the dog.
Barts Blood Pressure Clinic will make sure it works properly to resolve my breathlessness and stop my headaches and chest pain.