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a diamond that has been cut to a specific form (the so-called brilliant cut), with a specific number of facets, bringing out the maximum natural brilliance of the stone. Such a cut is also applied to other stones, such as rock crystal and topaz. The form of the brilliant cut is a combination of two pyramids, one of which (the upper) is truncated. The facets of the crown and pavilion are arranged in several tiers. A triple tier is common (the so-called triple brilliant cut). In classical gem cutting, the diamond has 56 lateral facets. The facets are placed in such a way that a parallel light beam falling on the surface of the gem is subjected to total reflection within the diamond. The light thus reflected is refracted into the rays of the spectrum because of the high light dispersion in the diamond. Thus, in reflected light a brilliant sparkles with all the colors of the rainbow.
Brilliants are used in jewelry making: they are mounted in settings of precious metals, either singly (most often in rings, earrings, and cufflinks) or in groups, forming separate elements or the entire basis of the composition of a piece of jewelry (such as a brooch or tiara). Brilliants adorn certain metals and higher orders of distinction (such as the Order of Victory and the Marshal’s Star). The mass of a brilliant is measured in carats.
IU. D. AKSENTON
See also Diamond, Nonpareil, Pearl, Ruby.