brittlestar

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brittlestar,

common name for echinoderms belonging to the class Ophiuroidea. The name is derived from their habit of breaking off arms as a means of defense. New arms are easily regenerated. They are also called serpent stars because of the snakelike movements of the five mobile, slender arms.

Brittlestars can be distinguished from sea starssea star,
also called starfish, echinoderm of the class Asteroidae, common in tide pools. Sea stars vary in size from under 1-2 in. (1.3 cm) to over 3 ft (90 cm) in diameter. They are commonly dull shades of yellow or orange, but there are many brightly colored ones as well.
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, or starfish, by their rounded central disk, sharply set off from the arms. They have the water-vascular system and tube feet common to all echinoderms; unlike sea stars, brittlestars lack open grooves (ambulacral grooves) on the lower surface of the arms, and the tube feet serve as tactile organs. Also unlike sea stars, brittlestars walk with their arms; only some species use the tube feet for locomotion. Each arm contains a series of jointed, bonelike internal calcite plates, or ossicles, which determine the freedom of arm movements. The body and arms of brittlestars are also protected by calcite plates, which in some species consist of arrays of microlenses that focus light onto a nerve bundle, acting like a compound eye. Brittlestars can move quickly and in any direction.

Individuals are relatively small, usually less than 1 in. (2.5 cm) across the central disk, although the arms may be quite long. They are inconspicuous and often nocturnal, living under rocks, among seaweed, or buried in the sand. All are marine species, feeding on detritus and small living or dead animals. The arms move the larger food masses to the mouth, where they are fragmented by a complex jaw apparatus. Tube feet move smaller particles to the mouth. As a rule, sexes are separate, and fertilization occurs in the open sea after gametes have been discharged. A characteristic armed larval stage, the ophiopluteus, undergoes a profound metamorphosis to produce the rayed adult form.

About 2,000 species of ophiuroids are known, and a number are common along American coasts. Brittlestars are classified in the phylum EchinodermataEchinodermata
[Gr.,=spiny skin], phylum of exclusively marine bottom-dwelling invertebrates having external skeletons of calcareous plates just beneath the skin. The plates may be solidly fused together, as in sea urchins, loosely articulated to facilitate movement, as in sea
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, class Ophiuroidea.

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References in periodicals archive ?
Dr Charlotte Bolton, Marine Conservation Society national seasearch co-ordinator, said: "The brittlestars and tubes (from tubeworms) seen on the beaches here will have been stripped off the seabed by the recent storms.
"Without these astonishing submerged landscapes there simply wouldn't be any fish, let alone fantastic jewel anemones, seahorses, dolphins, brittlestars amongst all the other wild and extraordinary creatures which are part of a healthy marine ecosystem."
Approximately 7000 known species are organized in five classes, including crinoids (sea lilies and feather stars), asteroids (starfishes), ophiuroids (brittlestars), echinoids (sea urchins and sand dollars).
Hendler, "Calcitic microlenses as part of the photoreceptor system in brittlestars," Nature, vol.
The most important prey found in both species were polychaetes, amphipods and isopods, while cirripeds, crabs, cumaceans, brittlestars and mollusks were the less consumed prey; for this reason these prey were grouped together for analysis as "other prey".
The Irish Sea also has lots of different habitats including honeycomb reefs made up of living worms and muddy beds home to sea urchins, Dublin Bay prawns and brittlestars. Yet since the first UN World Oceans Day last year, rising sea temperatures, ocean acidification and that massive oil spill on the Gulf Coast have all highlighted the vulnerable state of seas around the world.
These included sponges and invertebrates such as worms, crabs, shrimps and brittlestars. After sorting the specimens, many of which are new to science, she preserved them.
Growth, fecundity and mortality rates of two intertidal brittlestars (Echinodermata, Ophiuroidea) with contrasting modes of development.
Macro-invertebrates present included squat lobster, Munida quadrispina; hermit crabs (Paguriidae); spot shrimp, Pandalus platyceros; bryozoans; hydroids; brachiopods; seawhips (Pennatulacea); seastars (Asteroidea); brittlestars (Ophiuridae); sea urchins (Echinoidea); sea cucumbers (Holothuridae); and gastropods, in addition to the sponges.
Grenadiers, on the other hand, tended to be associated with brittlestars (Table 6).