bromine


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bromine

(brō`mēn, –mĭn) [Gr.,=stench], volatile, liquid chemical element; symbol Br; at. no. 35; at. wt. 79.904; m.p. –7.2°C;; b.p. 58.78°C;; sp. gr. of liquid 3.12 at 20°C;; density of vapor 7.14 grams per liter at STPSTP
or standard temperature and pressure,
standard conditions for measurement of the properties of matter. The standard temperature is the freezing point of pure water, 0°C; or 273.15°K;.
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; valence −1, +1, +3, +5, or +7. At ordinary temperatures bromine is a brownish-red liquid that gives off a similarly colored vapor with an offensive, suffocating odor. It is a member of the halogenhalogen
[Gr.,=salt-bearing], any of the chemically active elements found in Group 17 of the periodic table; the name applies especially to fluorine (symbol F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), and iodine (I).
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 family in Group 17 of the periodic tableperiodic table,
chart of the elements arranged according to the periodic law discovered by Dmitri I. Mendeleev and revised by Henry G. J. Moseley. In the periodic table the elements are arranged in columns and rows according to increasing atomic number (see the table entitled
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. It is the only nonmetallic element that is liquid under ordinary conditions. It is soluble in water to some extent; the aqueous solution, called bromine water, acts as an oxidizing agent. It is also soluble in alcohol, ether, and carbon disulfide. Bromine is less active chemically than chlorinechlorine
[Gr.,=green], gaseous chemical element; symbol Cl; at. no. 17; interval in which at. wt. ranges 35.446–35.457; m.p. −100.98°C;; b.p. −34.6°C;; density 3.2 grams per liter at STP; valence −1, +1, +3, +5, +7.
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 or fluorinefluorine
, gaseous chemical element; symbol F; at. no. 9; at. wt. 18.9984; m.p. −219.6°C;; b.p. −188.14°C;; density 1.696 grams per liter at STP; valence −1. Fluorine is a yellowish, poisonous, highly corrosive gas.
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 but is more active than iodineiodine
[Gr.,=violet], nonmetallic chemical element; symbol I; at. no. 53; at. wt. 126.90447; m.p. 113.5°C;; b.p. 184.35°C;; sp. gr. 4.93 at 20°C;; valence −1, +1, +3, +5, or +7.
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. It forms compounds similar to those of the other halogens (see bromidebromide,
any of a group of compounds that contain bromine and a more electropositive element or radical. Bromides are formed by the reaction of bromine or a bromide with another substance; they are widely distributed in nature.
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). Oxides of bromine are unstable, but two acids, hypobromous acid, HBrO, and bromic acid, HBrO3, are known with their salts. Hydrobromic acid is the aqueous solution of hydrogen bromide, HBr. Bromine does not occur uncombined in nature but is found in combination with other elements, notably sodium, potassium, magnesium, and silver. In compounds it is present in seawater, in mineral springs, and in common salt deposits, e.g., those at Stassfurt, Germany. It occurs in the United States, principally in Michigan, Ohio, and West Virginia. Bromine for commercial purposes is obtained by treating brines (from salt wells or seawater) with chlorine, which displaces the bromine. It is important in the preparation of organic compounds, such as ethylene dibromide, which is used in conjunction with an antiknock compound in gasoline. Bromine has a powerful corrosive action on the skin, destroying the tissue, and the vapor is strongly irritating to the eyes and the membranes of the nose and throat. The element was discovered in seawater by Antoine Jérôme Balard in 1826.
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bromine

[′brō‚mēn]
(chemistry)
A chemical element, symbol Br, atomic number 35, atomic weight 79.904; used to make dibromide ethylene and in organic synthesis and plastics.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

bromine

a pungent dark red volatile liquid element of the halogen series that occurs in natural brine and is used in the production of chemicals, esp ethylene dibromide. Symbol: Br; atomic no.: 35; atomic wt.: 79.904; valency: 1, 3, 5, or 7; relative density 3.12; density (gas): 7.59 kg/m3; melting pt.: --7.2°C; boiling pt.: 58.78°C
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Key players in the global bromine derivatives market include Tosoh Corporation, Chemtura Corporation, Gulf Resources Inc., ICL-Group, Tata Chemicals Ltd., TETRA Technologies Inc.
Even the tiny amounts of bromine that contaminate laboratory stocks of sodium chloride were enough to throw off experiments, Cummings says.
Eustace, "Bromine complexation in zinc-bromine circulating batteries," Journal of the Electrochemical Society, vol.
Bromine is classified as potentially fatal if inhaled and can cause severe skin burns.
The addition of bromine to the solution of benz[f]indene dropwise at rt for 2 h afforded the sole product of trans-1,2-dibromobenz[f]indane 2 in a quantitative yield.
Since the 1990s, researchers have noted that the return of the sun during the Arctic spring appears to trigger increases in atmospheric concentrations of bromine oxide (BrO).
Breathing bromine gas could cause you to cough, have trouble breathing, get a headache, be dizzy or have watery eyes.
Sixty percent of 150 car seats tested by the Michigan-based Ecology Center were found to contain chemicals that can be harmful to human health such as bromine and chlorine, which points to the presence of polyvinyl chlorate (PVC).
Key statement: A process for preparing a polydiene, the process comprising the step of polymerizing conjugated diene monomer in the presence of a dihydrocarbyl ether, where said step of polymerizing takes place within a polymerization mixture that includes less than 20% by weight of organic solvent based on the total weight of the polymerization mixture, and where said step of polymerizing employs a lanthanide-based catalyst system that includes the combination of or reaction product of ingredients including (a) a lanthanide compound, (b) an aluminoxane, (c) an organoaluminum compound other than an aluminoxane, and (d) a bromine-containing compound selected from the group consisting of elemental bromine, bromine-containing mixed halogens, and organic bromides.
This will further strengthen Chemtura's bromine operations.
Maleic acid (cis-2-butene-l, 4-dioic acid, Lide, 2004) and its corresponding methyl ester, dimethyl maleate (DMME) in which the alkene double bond is in conjugation with a carboxyl group, undergo isomerization on treatment with catalytic amounts of aqueous bromine or [[Br.sub.2]/[CCl.sub.4]] under UV light to form the thermodynamically more stable trans isomer.
The standard, J-STD-709, calls for limits on each plastic within a component of <1000 ppm (0.1%) bromine (if the bromine source is from brominated flame-retardants) and <1000 ppm (0.1%) of chlorine (if the chlorine source is from CFRs or PVC).