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The country code for Barbados.


The Canadian company in Waterloo, Ontario that pioneered email on the smartphone, founded in 1984 as Research In Motion (RIM). With the introduction of the BlackBerry 10 in 2013, RIM renamed itself after its product line.

BlackBerry phones were the primary smartphones in companies in the early 2000s. Today, BlackBerrys are licensed to TCL Communication and use the Android operating system (see BlackBerry Key).

BlackBerry Email Pioneered the Smartphone
In the 1980s and 1990s, RIM products were text-only pagers that used the Mobitex network. In 1995, two-way messaging was introduced. However, the big change occurred in 1999 when the BlackBerry pager became the first mobile device that synchronized with a company's email server (see BlackBerry Enterprise Server). See Mobitex.

In 2002, GSM voice and GPRS data were added in the model 5810, making it the first BlackBerry smartphone. Two years later, a million people were using them, and in 2009, with so many repeat users, the 50 millionth BlackBerry was sold. At the end of 2012, there were approximately 79 million subscribers.

BlackBerry Competitors
In the late 2000s, iPhones and Androids were introduced that offered touchscreens, slick software and most significantly, email synchronization, BlackBerry's claim to fame. As iPhone and Android sales skyrocketed, BlackBerry users switched, and by the time new, innovative BlackBerrys were introduced in 2013, sales were barely 1% of the market (see BlackBerry 10). The company launched a turnaround plan that focused on selling mobile security software to enterprises and deriving royalties from its thousands of patents. In 2015, the first Android-only BlackBerry debuted (see BlackBerry Priv). See BlackBerry App World, BlackBerry Enterprise Server, BlackBerry Storm, CrackBerry, BlackBerry Messenger and smartphone.

Classic BlackBerry Models
Until the Storm came out in 2008, BlackBerrys had physical keyboards, which was their distinguishing feature. Using both thumbs, people learned to type quickly. (Images courtesy of BlackBerry,

Classic BlackBerry Models
Until the Storm came out in 2008, BlackBerrys had physical keyboards, which was their distinguishing feature. Using both thumbs, people learned to type quickly. (Images courtesy of BlackBerry,

Android on BlackBerry Key
The classic BlackBerry keyboard running the Android operating system. See BlackBerry Priv and BlackBerry Key.


(1) A type of transmission that uses frequency division multiplexing (see FDM).

(2) High-speed transmission. Broadband commonly refers to Internet access via a variety of high-speed wired and wireless networks, including cable, DSL, FiOS, Wi-Fi, 4G, 5G and satellite, all of which are faster than earlier analog dial-up by a huge magnitude.

A Formal Definition
Broadband always referred to a higher-speed connection, but the threshold varied with the times. Years ago, the widely deployed 1.5 Mbps T1 line was considered broadband speed. In 2015, the FCC redefined the minimum as 25 Mbps down and 3 Mbps up, updating the 2010 rating of 4 and 1 Mbps. However, based on the revised definition, more than 50 million rural Americans did not have access to broadband speeds that year.

Public vs. Private
The broadband term is sometimes used to contrast a public provider with a private network. For example, the phrase "broadband works for regular traffic in our branches, but we use private lines for our mission critical business." See wireless broadband, T1, cable modem and DSL.
References in periodicals archive ?
[ClickPress, Thu Dec 20 2018] With the exceeding significance of bronchial blocker devices in the field of medical science, the bronchial blocker devices manufacturers have introduced revolutionary solutions in the bronchial blocker devices market for improved medical aid to the patients.
A comparison of the right-sided double-lumen tube with the single-lumen tube with right-sided enclosed bronchial blocker. Anesth Analg 1998; 86: 696-700, doi: 10.1213/00000539-199804000-00003.
Bronchial Blocker. Various devices can be passed through or beside an endotracheal tube to isolate the source of bleeding.
Several techniques to isolate a lung include, the double lumen tube, bronchial blockers, the Univent ETT and the single-lumen ETT are available.
It may also be chosen when postoperative mechanical ventilation is required, as the DLT must be changed at the end of the operation therefore the use of the bronchial blocker will make tube-changing unnecessary.
Various other alternatives include placement of a bronchial blocker under fluoroscopic guidance, High frequency jet ventilation (19) has been used successfully in the patients with CLE, as low airway pressures are suitable for the neonates.