Chronic respiratory diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, bronchiectasis
, allergic rhinitis and sinusitis, obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome, pulmonary hypertension, and other occupational lung diseases, are caused by disorder of the airways and other structures of the lung .
He died in 2010 following an infective exacerbation of his bronchiectasis
The most common HRCT findings in respiratory involvement include bronchial wall thickening (that may decrease following corticosteroids), bronchiectasis
, lung opacities, emphysema, and ground-glass alterations.
Among the seven patients without bronchiectasis
, the average diagnosis delay was 2.6 years, and LRIs occurred 2.1 times per year.
Irrespective of the cause of the bronchiectasis
, the structural damage to the airways predisposes the patient to repeated lower respiratory tract infections that can cause further damage to the lungs.
Conclusion: Besides lung cancer, chronic occupational inhalation of arsenic exposure may cause non-malignant pulmonary findings such as bronchiectasis
, pulmonary nodules and diffuse interstitial lung disease.
is the most common pulmonary manifestation associated with IBD, but in a study that involved 1258 patients from 7 European cohorts without cystic fibrosis, bronchiectasis
was ascribed to IBD in only 1.9% of patients.4 In comparison, this was only slightly more frequent than bronchiectasis
related to ciliary dysfunction and approximately a third of the cases due to immunodeficiency.
It should be kept in mind that development of bronchiectasis
and lung resection may be necessary in the treatment of delayed cases of foreign body aspirations.
We have subdivided cystic lung disease entities based on underlying cystic mechanism into (1) cystic dilation of lung structures: (a) ball valve effects, (b) traction bronchiectasis/alveolar ectasia, and (c) cystic suppurative/necrotic bronchiectasis
; (2) parenchymal necrosis: (a) suppurative, (b) caseous, (c) ischemic, and (d) intratumoral; (3) alveolar rupture and air space conflation; (4) cyst expansion with lung displacement: (a) infectious, (b) congenital, and (5) miscellaneous.
Some authors have suggested that obstructive lung diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and bronchiectasis
, are associated with the presence of PACs, but results are debated [1, 2, 6, 7].
Hemoptysis is a frightening symptom for patients and often is a manifestation of a significant underlying disease such as tuberculosis, bronchiectasis
, and lung cancer.
(code J47 according to the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th revision (ICD-10)) is a chronic respiratory disease characterized by irreversible dilatation of bronchi and/or bronchioles associated with repeated infections or other factors impairing lung function such as foreign body, tumour, etc.