Models of particle (aerosol) deposition have demonstrated the importance of respiratory bronchiole
and alveolar duct structures in particle deposition (26-29).
Respiratory bronchiolitis (RB) can be identified by microscopic examination of the lungs of essentially all current cigarette smokers and many ex-smokers, (5) and it consists of collections of pigmented macrophages ("smoker's macrophages") in the lumens of respiratory bronchioles
and surrounding alveoli.
(7,21-29) Depending on how broadly or narrowly one defines the term, there are a variable number of diseases that may fall under the heading of small airways disease, including those primary to the bronchioles
and those involving the bronchioles
secondarily, with bronchiolar involvement only one of several features of the disease.
In addition, there were macrophage and erythrocyte accumulation and edema in some parts of bronchioles
and alveolar lumens.
are found in the respiratory system where air is fed to the alveoli (air sacs) and ultimately the blood stream.
Peribronchiolar metaplasia (PBM, known in the past as lambertosis) refers to very fine, interstitial fibrosis that radiates outward from a bronchiole
, with the fibrotic alveolar walls covered by metaplastic, ciliated bronchiolar epithelium (Figure 6).
Measurements in that study were made from a respiratory bronchiole
to the edge of the acinus.
Specimens of lung tissue of the two groups were taken and prepared for light microscopic examination.Result: Structural changes were found in the experimental (5-fluorouracil) group compared to the controls, including abnormal alveolar duct, sac, and terminal bronchioles
with emphysematous changes in most of the alveoli in addition to peribronchiolitis, perivasculitis, inflammatory cells infiltration and interstitial fibrosis.Conclusion: 5-fluorouracil has toxic effects on the lung tissue resulting in emphysema and interstitial fibrosis.Keywords: 5-fluorouracil, Rat, Lung, Emphesema, Interstitial fibrosis
A positive result by light microscopy was granular to diffuse red staining on the apical surface of epithelial cells in trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles
and on alveolar cells.
Pneumonia is an acute infection of the lung parenchyma distal to the terminal bronchiole
, most commonly bacterial in nature, and associated with clinical and/or radiological evidence of consolidation of part or parts of one or both lungs.
smooth muscle is innervated by both sympathetic (beta-2 adrenergic) and parasympathetic (cholinergic) autonomic nerves, which exert opposite effects on the airways.