LTD4 is the most potent bronchoconstrictor
and CysLT1 has chemo-attractive properties for many inflammatory cells.
 Yoga with its calming effect on the mind which could reduce the emotional stress and therefore withdrawing the bronchoconstrictor
Indeed, in addition to their well-known bronchoconstrictor
effect, CysLTs, acting on SMCs, are also potent vasoconstrictors as observed in the human lungs [7, 102].
Also, pranayama with its calming effect on the mind can reduce emotional stresses, thereby withdrawing the bronchoconstrictor
At 8 weeks of age, the investigators measured cytokine levels in bronchoalveolar fluid to evaluate inflammatory responses and airway responsiveness to methacholine (a bronchoconstrictor
Also, asthmatic airway was found to have increased ADMA which not only decreases the bioavailability of L-arginine to eNOS but also uncouples eNOS to generate reactive oxygen-free radicals to generate more peroxynitrite which is a powerful bronchoconstrictor
. Interestingly, eNOS-deficient mice had shown the features of metabolic syndrome, and on the other hand eNOS overexpression in bronchial epithelial alleviated asthma features .
Respiratory functions of tea workers, employed in processing different types of tea, showed prevalence of almost all chronic respiratory symptoms; acute reductions in forced expiratory volume in one second were considerably smaller suggesting the bronchoconstrictor
effect of the tea-dust that acts mostly on smaller airways.
In addition, no changes to bronchoconstrictor
responses to histamine were noted.
Leukotriene receptor antagonists block the bronchoconstrictor
and proinflammatory activity of cysteinyl leukotrienes (metabolites of arachodonic acid produced by mast cells, basophils and eosinophils) within the asthmatic airway.
Cardioselective beta-blockers are useful in patients with hypertension who also have impaired pulmonary function, as they eliminate the unwanted bronchoconstrictor
effects caused by nonselective beta-blockers (e.g., propranolol) on the beta 2 receptors in the lungs.
Cholinergic nerves are the predominant bronchoconstrictor
pathway in airways and cholinergic neurotransmission may be increased in asthma by the effects of inflammatory mediators on afferent nerves (reflex effect) and on prejunctional receptors on postganglionic nerves (9).
Combivent Inhalation Aerosol[R] is a combination of ipratropium (a long-acting, anticholinergic, bronchoconstrictor
antagonist) and albuterol (a beta-2 adrenergic bronchodilator).