Some subspecies of Barn Swallow, such as the nominate one (i.e., Hirundo rustica rustica), show relatively high levels of intraspecific brood parasitism
(16-22% of active nests; Moller, 1987b; Moller, 1989; Petrzelkova et al., 2015).
Interspecific brood parasitism
has also been documented in burying beetles.
Despite the fact that 97% of cowbird eggs and nestlings do not survive to adulthood, brood parasitism
by cowbirds has pushed birds of some host species to the status of "endangered" and has probably hurt populations of birds of some other host species.
It is interesting that bronzed cowbirds responded frequently to Altamira oriole songs, since Altamira orioles resist brood parasitism
and seldom raise bronzed cowbirds (Hathcock, 2000; Werner et al., 2007).
The cuckoo is the only British bird that practises brood parasitism
- this is when they lay their eggs in another bird's nest and use them as foster parents.
by Brown-headed Cowbirds, WNV infection, loss of wintering habitat of neotropical migrants, and habitat degradation and loss on breeding ranges are all factors acting on populations of North American birds (Terborgh 1989, Causey and others 2003).
" is a type of social parasitism common among birds and entails one individual laying its egg(s) in the nest of the bird of another species who raises the parasitic egg(s) at the expense of its own young (Lack, 1968; Rothstein, 1990; Cichon, 1996).
As a result, birds that were attracted to playback sites in this area had low brood parasitism
rates and high nesting success (Ward & Schlossberg 2004).
This "brood parasitism
" is usually associated with cuckoos laying eggs in the nests of other species.
Impact of brood parasitism
by brown-headed cowbirds on red-winged blackbird reproductive succes.
Nest depredation and brood parasitism
are known to increase in habitat fragments, which decrease productivity of birds.