Prior to egg deposition into the brood pouch
, mature oocytes or eggs were seen in the thoracic segments of adult females (Fig.
Male pregnancy in seahorses and pipefishes (Family Syngnathidae): Rapid diversification of paternal brood pouch
morphology inferred from a molecular phylogeny.
The reproductive state of adult males (full or empty brood pouch
) was determined by visual (and in ambiguous cases, manual) inspection.
Embryos were removed from the brood pouch
of 37 randomly selected females.
parmerong was determined by adult host plant choice, the mobility of juvenile amphipods after release from the maternal brood pouch
First, each brood pouch
was divided into 14 sections and marked [ILLUSTRATION FOR FIGURE 1B OMITTED].
A female "impregnated" him by inserting eggs in his brood pouch
. He then fertilized the eggs and nurtured the embryos until they were ready to be on their own.
Although the duration of incubation is not known, all embryos in the brood pouch
of a single individual are at comparable stages of development.
The radioactively labelled eggs could then be tracked using special instruments which registered how the nutrients moved from the embryos into the brood pouch
and furthermore into the body of the male pipefish.
"The brood pouches
would have helped young trilobites survive."
The young chick is then brooded in the guard phase, spending time balanced on its parent's feet and sheltered in the brood pouch
(2000) point out that retention of competent offspring within brood pouches
represents a form of extended parental care.