teleta have examined effects of reduced salinity on larval survival, juvenile growth, and reproductive success (Pechenik et al., 2000, 2001a, b), none has examined the impact of salinity stress or hypoxia on the development of brooded embryos, or the later consequences of such stress.
1), no larvae successfully emerged from any brood tubes after brooded embryos had been exposed to that salinity for 48 h or 96 h (Fig.
But, as yet, of my 12 Wyandotte pullets, only the one persistent pullet has brooded
. If anybody has developed a nest design or method that encourages brooding, I would appreciate any information or tips.
For instance, brooded
embryos may die due to failed embryogenesis and/or fertilization (Kuris 1991), parasites (Shields et al.
About one week after a filled brood chamber was observed, the total number of chambers and the number of brooded
embryos per colony were recorded.
Total number of larvae brooded
(total larval production) on each sampling date along the season showed a high correlation with brooding percentages ([r.sup.2] = 0.85) being the highest value found on December 21 (Fig.
Once in both 1995 and 1997, females of both genera brooded
eggs in opposite ends of the same cleft in the rock face at Baby Bare.
Female oysters brooded
larvae at the early veliger stage (115-135 [micro]m) in the infrabranchial chamber.
In some species, however, there is a totally benthic or brooded
larval development, and in other cases a period of brooding is followed by a pelagic phase (Pechenik, 1979, 1986).
Relationships between percent mortality and features of the mother (female size = drained weight, number of pentactulae brooded
) were tested by combining data from Sites 1 and 2 for each month.
Although originally proposed for an external brooder (Strathmann and Strathmann, 1982), the allometry hypothesis has been tested by comparing the relationship between animal size, egg number, and number of brooded
embryos in several marine invertebrates (Daly, 1972; Rutherford, 1973; Menge, 1974; Ockelmann and Muus, 1978; Rumrill, 1982; Strathmann et al., 1984; Kabat, 1985; Gremare and Olive, 1986; McGrath and OFoighil, 1986; Russell and Huelsenbeck, 1989; Byrne, 199 1; Brev and Hain, 1992; Hines, 1992; Hess, 1993).