brutalism


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Related to brutalism: Bauhaus, Le Corbusier

brutalism

or

new brutalism,

architectural style of the late 1950s and 60s that arose in reaction to the lightness, polish, and use of glass and steel that had come to characterize the orthodox International styleInternational style,
in architecture, the phase of the modern movement that emerged in Europe and the United States during the 1920s. The term was first used by Philip Johnson in connection with a 1932 architectural exhibition held at the Museum of Modern Art, New York City.
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; the term is derived from the French béton brut [raw concrete]. Brutalism aimed at honesty in the use of materials, e.g., unfinished concrete and brick, and a certain moral seriousness, and arose in part out of the monumental structures designed by Le CorbusierLe Corbusier
, pseud. of Charles Édouard Jeanneret
, 1887–1965, French architect, b. La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland. Often known simply as "Corbu," he was one of the most influential architects of the 20th cent.
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 late in his career. Often employed in government, university, and other institutional buildings, it is noted for having produced such monolithic, imposing, and fortresslike structures as Paul RudolphRudolph, Paul Marvin,
1918–97, American modernist architect, b. Elkton, Ky. Rudolph taught at several universities and served as chair of the Yale Univ. architecture department from 1958–65. He was one of the most influential American architects of the mid-20th cent.
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's Yale Art and Architecture Building (1963), Marcel BreuerBreuer, Marcel Lajos
, 1902–81, American architect and furniture designer, b. Hungary. During the 1920s he was associated, both as student and as teacher, with the Bauhaus in Germany.
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's Whitney MuseumWhitney Museum of American Art,
in New York City, founded in 1930 by Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney with a core group of 700 artworks, many from her own collection. The museum was an outgrowth of the Whitney Studio (1914–18), the Whitney Studio Club (1918–28), and the
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 (1966, now Met Breuer), Boston's City Hall (1968), London's Trellick Tower (1966–72, designed by Erno Goldfinger), and Louis KahnKahn, Louis Isadore
, 1901–74, American architect, b. Estonia. He and his family moved to Philadelphia in 1905, and he later studied at the Univ. of Pennsylvania. From the 1920s through World War II, Kahn worked on numerous housing projects including Carver Court (1944),
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's government complex (1962–83) in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Brutalism fell from favor in the 1970s but has experienced some renewed interest in the 21st cent.

Bibliography

See studies by A. Clement (2011), K. May and J. van den Hout (2013), D. Bradley (2014), E. Harwood (2015), M. Pasnik and C. Grimley (2015), C. Beanland (2016), B. Calder (2016), P. Chadwick (2016), S. Henley (2017), and B. Highmore (2017).

Brutalism

(1945–1960)
An uncompromisingly modern style which was expressed in large scale using raw and exposed materials emphasizing stark forms. It was distinguished by its weighty, textured surfaces and massiveness; created mainly by large areas of patterned concrete. Windows consist of tiny openings, and the combination of voids and solids gave walls an egg-crate appearance. Mechanical systems are left exposed on the interior of the bare structure.

Brutalism

 

(also new brutalism), a trend in modern architecture. It originated with the architects Alison and Peter Smithson (husband and wife) in the middle of the 1950’s in Great Britain and spread to the countries of Western Europe, the USA, and Japan. It has no clearly defined theory. The brutalists strive to create architecture in which aesthetic qualities are determined by crude, obviously heavy forms and exposed structures and engineering systems of buildings. Examples include the school at Hunstanton, 1949-54, and the building housing the editorial offices of the London Economist, 1964; both by A. and P. Smithson; the Marchiondi Institute in Milan, 1959, by V. Vigano; and the Halen Siedlung near Bern, 1961.

REFERENCE

Tasalov, V. Prometei ili Orfei. Moscow, 1967. Pages 227-30.

A. V. IKONNIKOV

Brutalism, New Brutalism

A style of modern architecture, primarily in the 1960s, emphasizing heavy, monumental, stark concrete forms and raw surfaces; may show patterns of the rough wood formwork used in casting the concrete (béton brut). Buildings in this style are often suggestive of massive sculptures.

brutalism

an austere style of architecture characterized by emphasis on such structural materials as undressed concrete and unconcealed service pipes
http://students.open.ac.uk/open2net/modernity/4_15.htm
www.skyscrapers.com/re/en/ab/ds/pd/bu/ca/sy/mo/br
References in periodicals archive ?
The term brutalism originates from the French description of raw concrete - beton brut - and it was British architectural critic Reyner Banham who first adapted the term into "brutalism" to identify the style.
His work follows in the tradition of other great architectural photographers, like Julius Shulman, but whereas Shulman tended toward more glamorous settings, Singalovski focuses on two of the most scorned architectural styles in Israel, or anywhere really: modernist apartment blocks, and Brutalism, both of which are closely identified with Israel's early history.
Notting Some 40,000 people have "liked" a Facebook page by the so-called Brutalism Appreciation Society and walking tours on the estate are frequent.
Name the structure in Gateshead, now demolished, which was an example of brutalism.
I did a residency at the Barbican last July, which is a fantastic example of brutalism.
It shall be argued that this form evolved by mirroring the practice of New Brutalism a post-war architectural movement that sought to honestly present the structures and functions of a building through a new social-ethics of design that countered a divisive modernist aesthetic.
In a discussion with artist and writer Travis Diehl, Connor describes her initial misreading of the fountain's aesthetic roots: "First of all I thought it was Brutalist, but then I realized that it was Art Deco, veiled in Brutalism, because it's just, it had so many layers of paint and corrosion.
The brutalism begins with the architecture and extends all the way down to the residents in Ben Wheatley's "High-Rise," a flashy and frequently incoherent adaptation of J.
Brutalism has its roots in 1940s and 1950s British (and other countries) post-war building traditions.
The foyer of this place was enough to tell you that the architects had used airport terminal brutalism as their model for what is supposed to be a landmark venue.
No single building has had the largest effect on my life, but the environment of Southampton particularly combines post-war replanning, chunky medieval fragments, walkable medieval walls, brutalism, lots of green spaces and industry, plus more than enough suburbanising retail and housing developments to induce a lifelong hatred for such things.
On Joe's refrigerator door, he's hung a piece of newsprint with words painted in black, arranged alphabetically, signaling vaguely at some existential threat: "Alter ego, Brutalism, Cage, Diet .