where d is the pore diameter, [tau] is the surface tension of the liquid, [theta] is the contact angle between liquid and membrane surface (assumed to be 0 in case of full wetting, which means cos[theta] = 1), and [p.sub.BP] the bubble point
POROMETER 3G (Quantachrome) was used to measure the bubble point
pressure and pore sizes by a wet-dry flow method.
With high-glide zeotropic refrigerants, care must be taken to use bubble point
to calculate subcooling, and dew point to calculate superheat.
The pore size of a microporous membrane is typically measured using a technique called bubble point
. Bubble point
is the minimum pressure at which a wetted membrane allows a constant stream of air bubbles through it.
If there is a transition from bubble point
to dew point saturation conditions over the calculation interval, the GOC depth will be estimated.
(2-6) EU Annex 1, paragraph 113, however, states: "The integrity of the sterilized filter should be verified before use and should be confirmed immediately after use by an appropriate method such as bubble point
, diffusive flow or pressure hold test." (7) The paragraph, in its first sentence, recommends the uncommon and potentially hazardous pre-use/poststerilization integrity test.
Undersaturated oil viscosity correlations, which usually use saturated crude oil viscosity and pressure above the bubble point
to predict viscosity of undersaturated oil reservoirs.
The pore size rating of a membrane can be determined by using the bubble point
The binary interaction parameter, which was fit to the two-phase data, and the pure component parameters were then used to predict a three-phase bubble point
Those who believe there is a bubble point
out that such buyers likely won't have savings to bail them out; the Commerce Department's Bureau of Economic Analysis reported in recent weeks that the net average savings for Americans has hit zero.
The Clamp-On Porometer measures the bubble point
, mean flow pore diameter, pore size distribution, gas permeability, and envelope surface area, but does not require a sample to be cut out from the bulk material.
In this way, bubble point
measurements on a sample of fixed composition were obtained.