It is unclear how the previously formed bubble influences the growth of the next bubble forming at the orifice and leads to different bubbling regimes.
Based on the visual observations, the regimes of bubble formation were qualitatively classified as period-1 (single) bubbling, period-2 bubbling, that is, bubbling with pairing (bubbles coalesce far above the orifice) and with coalescence (bubbles coalesce at the orifice itself before detachment), bubbling with triple or quadruple coalescence (period-3 or period-4 bubbling) and finally the chaotic bubbling (Leibson et al.
Most of the models developed to predict bubble formation are based on the assumption of single bubbling and do not consider different regimes of bubble formation (for example, see the review by Kumar and Kuloor (1970)).
Depending on the bubbling regime, the detachment times of successive bubbles were measured using the recorded frames with an accuracy of [+ or -] 1 ms.
Concerned about athletes' safety, the Lancaster school board has voted unanimously to resurface the floor of the New Vista Middle School gym because of bubbling
in the polymer, officials said Wednesday.