Twigs re-growing from 2-year-old stems that were browsed previously had larger diameters at their bud scale scar than those re-growing from stems that were not browsed in the previous year.
We estimated length of leaders of current annual growth for feltleaf willow from their diameter at the bud scale scar using regression equations developed for this crushed area by Bowyer et al.
Previous studies requiring cone aging used bud scale scars
or branch whorls to determine age (e.g., Helium and Barker, 1981; Benkman et al., 2003).
As the bud begins new growth, these scales fall off, leaving bud scale scars on the stem.
The length of a year's growth can be determined by measuring the distance between any two rings of terminal bud scale scars (see Figure 4-9).
Defoliation early during the first flushing in 1997 caused a second flushing (preceded by the formation of the first terminal bud) with a small increase in shoot length as well as the formation of a second terminal bud and lateral buds along with bud scale scars
from the first terminal bud (Table 2).