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bufferingPreloading data into a reserved area of memory (the buffer). In streaming audio or video from the Internet, buffering refers to downloading a certain amount of data before starting to play the music or movie. Having an advance supply of audio samples or video frames in RAM at all times prevents disruption if there are momentary delays in transmission while the material is being played. Even a live broadcast would have a few seconds of delay built in. See streaming video and adaptive streaming.
Buffering Over the Internet
If a network is fast enough to keep up with playback, buffering is not necessary. However, this is not the case over the Internet where packets can traverse numerous routers from source to destination, and delays can be introduced at any juncture. See double buffering, buffer and buffer flush.
|Filling the Buffer|
|The message means 70% of a reserved area in memory is filled at that moment. When it reaches 100%, the software (Windows Media Player in this example) will start "playing" the video.|
the ability of soil to resist change in its reaction (pH) under the influence of acids and alkalies. The more salts of strong bases and weak acids present in a soil solution, the higher the buffering of the soil in relation to acid fertilizers; salts of weak bases and strong acids are buffering to alkali fertilizers. Since the solution is in constant interaction with the solid phase of the soil, the latter also exerts substantial influence on buffer action. The more colloid particles and humus in the soil (for example, chernozems) and the more absorbed bases they contain, the more buffering the soil to acid fertilizers; hydrogen absorbed by colloids (podzolic soils and krasnozems) fosters increased buffer action to alkali fertilizers. Heavy (clayey) soils have the highest buffering. Atmospheric precipitation and ground and irrigation water may change the reaction of the soil if it has no buffer action; on the other hand, if the soil has buffer action, these factors cannot change its reaction.
Plants react to changes in soil reaction. Hence, soil buffering plays a large role in their growth and development. Soil buffering may be increased by introducing organic fertilizers.
N. I. GORBUNOV