buffering


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buffering

Preloading data into a reserved area of memory (the buffer). In streaming audio or video from the Internet, buffering refers to downloading a certain amount of data before starting to play the music or movie. Having an advance supply of audio samples or video frames in RAM at all times prevents disruption if there are momentary delays in transmission while the material is being played. Even a live broadcast would have a few seconds of delay built in. See streaming video and adaptive streaming.

Buffering Over the Internet
If a network is fast enough to keep up with playback, buffering is not necessary. However, this is not the case over the Internet where packets can traverse numerous routers from source to destination, and delays can be introduced at any juncture. See double buffering, buffer and buffer flush.


Filling the Buffer
The message means 70% of a reserved area in memory is filled at that moment. When it reaches 100%, the software (Windows Media Player in this example) will start "playing" the video.

Buffering

 

the ability of soil to resist change in its reaction (pH) under the influence of acids and alkalies. The more salts of strong bases and weak acids present in a soil solution, the higher the buffering of the soil in relation to acid fertilizers; salts of weak bases and strong acids are buffering to alkali fertilizers. Since the solution is in constant interaction with the solid phase of the soil, the latter also exerts substantial influence on buffer action. The more colloid particles and humus in the soil (for example, chernozems) and the more absorbed bases they contain, the more buffering the soil to acid fertilizers; hydrogen absorbed by colloids (podzolic soils and krasnozems) fosters increased buffer action to alkali fertilizers. Heavy (clayey) soils have the highest buffering. Atmospheric precipitation and ground and irrigation water may change the reaction of the soil if it has no buffer action; on the other hand, if the soil has buffer action, these factors cannot change its reaction.

Plants react to changes in soil reaction. Hence, soil buffering plays a large role in their growth and development. Soil buffering may be increased by introducing organic fertilizers.

N. I. GORBUNOV

References in periodicals archive ?
Again, IO-Lite eliminates all copying and multiple buffering, even in the presence of caching CGI programs.
IO-Lite's ability to eliminate data copying and multiple buffering can dramatically reduce the cost of serving static and dynamic content.
Potential benefits resulting from the elimination of multiple buffering and the customized file cache replacement are not realized, because this experiment does not stress the file cache (i.
However, there are still substantial overheads associated with IPC across pipes and multiple buffering, as explained in Section 3.
With more clients in a wide-area network, the effects of multiple buffering become much more significant, as shown in the next section.
It does not suffer the effects of multiple buffering, so only a small amount of additional control overhead is added as the network delay increases.
Like IO-Lite, mmap avoids multiple buffering of file data in the file cache and the application(s).
In principle, copy avoidance and single buffering could be accomplished transparently using existing POSIX APIs, through the use of page remapping and copy-on-write.
The lack of support for concurrent sharing prevents effectively integrating a copy-free I/O buffering scheme with the file cache.
Fbufs is a copy-free cross-domain transfer and buffering mechanism for I/O data, based on immutable buffers that can be concurrently shared.
IO-Lite is a general I/O buffering and caching system that avoids all redundant copying and multiple buffering of I/O data, even on complex data paths that involve the file cache, interprocess communication facilities, network subsystem, and multiple application processes.