Peng and fellow researchers in physics science and technology department at Lanzhou University in China, develop numerical models for the current conduction in single-layer devices, including both injection and bulk effect
for both trap-free organics and organics with traps exponentially distributed in energy.
The dual benefit of bulk effect
elimination in conjunction with a low loss tangent non-conducting substrate makes these highly coveted ultra-linear and low loss characteristics possible.
Here the decrease of haze is mainly due to bulk effects
. Indeed, increasing TUS leads to a reduction of processing time, which in turn yields more frozen-in oriented chain segments.
Patients reported improvements in menorrhagia (83%), dysmenorrhea (77%), and bulk effects
The scalar Kirchhoff approximation can, in principle, be applied to transmission calculations (22), but this is more difficult than the reflection case, because of contributions from two surfaces, possible bulk effects
, and a high probability of multiple scattering (18).